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Full text of "The Fairfaxes of England and America in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, including letters from and to Hon. William Fairfax ... and his sons, Col. George William Fairfax and Rev. Bryan, Eighth Lord Fairfax, the neighbors and friends of George Washington"

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THE 

FAIRFAXES OF ENGLAND AND AMERICA 

IN THE 

INCLUDING LETTERS FROM 



HON. WILLIAM FAIRFAX, 

PRESIDENT OP COUNCIL OF VIRGINIA, 

AND HIS SONS 

COL. GEORGE WILLIAM FAIRFAX AND REV. 
BRYAN, EIGHTH LORD FAIRFAX, 

THE NEIGHBORS AND 

FRIENDS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



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EDWARD D/KEILL, 

AUTHOR OF "terra MARIJ5," " DAHKO'lAH LAND AND DAHKOTAH 
LIFE," ETC., ETC. 




ALBANY, N. Y. : 
JOEL MUN SELL, 

1868. , ^ 



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PKllKiKKK (IK TIIK FAIl'.KAX FAMIM' 0F|' IEOIX[A, UXITF.D STATKS IlK AMKUICA. 



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PKEF ACE. 



The name of Fairfax is closely connected with 
two of the most momentous uprisings of English- 
men, as well as with two of the most distinguished 
popular leaders. 

Thomas, the third baron of Cameron, the hero of 
!N"a8eby, is associated in history with Oliver Crom- 
well ; and Thomas, the sixth Lord Fairfax, retiring 
to the wilds of the Shenandoah valley in Vir- 
ginia, became the friend of George Washington, the 
successful defender of the liberties of Englishmen 
on American soil. 

The following correspondence for the first time 
printed, it is hoped may prove interesting not only 
to the numerous descendants of the Fairfaxes on 
both sides of the Atlantic, but to students of Colo- 
nial American History. 

E. D. N. 

Anacostan Ridge, 

Near Washington, D. C. 



PART FIRST, 



CORRESPONDENCE 



THE FAIRFAXES 



ENGLAND. 



THE FAIRFAXES, 



CORRESPONDENCE OF THE FAIRFAXES IX ENGLAND. 

In the year 1822, some repairs having been 
made at Leeds Castle, England, a quantity of 
rubbish was sold, among which was an old oaken 
chest, apparently filled with Dutch tiles, which 
was purchased by a poor shoemaker from a 
neighboring village. Upon removing the tiles, 
he found beneath them several parchments 
and a number of letters. 

Knowing no better use for the vellum he cut 
it into measuring strips, and the papers were 
carelessly scattered, some being used by the 
village mantua makers, as winders for thread. 
At length the attention of an intelligent gentle- 
man was arrested, and he diligently sought out 
and purchased the scattered manuscripts, which 
were edited by George W. Johnson, barrister, 
and published in two octavo volumes, by Bent- 
ley of London, in 1848. 



8 THE FAIRFAXES 

Not long since, a friend who had married one 
of the American Fairfaxes, told me that there 
was a quantity of manuscript in a trunk, at his 
house, which he would submit to my examina- 
tion. One day he brought a tattered worm- 
eaten and mouse-nibbled bundle of old papers, 
difficult to arrange and more difficult to deci- 
pher. 

From this has been rescued the following 
correspondence of the Fairfaxes of England, 
which, by a singular coincidence, proves to be a 
supplement of that which was in the old oaken 
chest of Leeds Castle. 

Sir Thomas Fairfax, who purchased the ba- 
ronetcy of Cameron for £1,500, was a solid, 
sensible man, loyal to his king, and humbly 
acknowledged obligation to his Creator. 

In his youth he was captain of a company of 
troopers in the Low Countries ; in the prime of 
life interested in agriculture and the raising 
of stock, and published a treatise on the horse ; 
in his old age lived a retired life respected by 
his neighbors as a friend and counsellor, and 
wrote some devotional sentiments. After four- 
score years he died in 1G40, having had many 



OF EN(JLAND. 9 

children. Among others were Dorothy, the 
wife of Sir William Constable, and Ferdinando, 
the heir and successor to the title, who was a 
member of parliament at an early age, opposed 
to the usurpation of Charles, quick to buckle on 
the armor in defense of the liberties of England, 
and in command of the parliament forces at 
the famous battle of Marston Moor. This se- 
cond Lord Fairfax had eight children, the first 
named after his grandfather Thomas, and 
known in history as the hero of Naseby, and 
the fifth WEis Frances, the wife of Sir Thomas, 
afterwards Lord Widdrington, the speaker of 
parliament, who administered the oath to 
Cromwell, as protector. 

The correspondence which follows pertains 
to the marriage of Thomas, the third Lord Fair- 
fax, to Ann, a daughter of Horatio Vere. 
Young Fairfax had served on the continent, 
under the brave and virtuous Lord Vere, the 
Chevalier Bayard of England. 

The latter died in 1635, but his widow 
shared in the esteem of her husband for the 
then young Tom Fairfax and was willing that 
her daughter Ann should become his wife. 



10 THE FAIRFAXES 

They were all religiously disposed, moderate 
but decided Presbyterians, equally opposed to 
the ritualism of Laud, and the irregularities of 
the Independents of that era. 

The first letter of the collection is from Mary, 
Lady Vere, written in August 24th, 1636, to 
the wife of Sir William Constable, the aunt of 
the young Fairfax. Sir William was prominent 
as a member of parliament during the common- 
wealth, commanded a regiment, was governor 
of Gloucester, one of the judges of Charles the 
First, and signed his death warrant. 



LADY VERE TO LADY CONSTABLE. 
To my lionor able friend^ the Lady Constable: 

Madam : 

I cannot but take the first opportunity after 
my servant's return out of Holland, to give 
your ladyship notice of it as I promised that 
you may see I meant really as I spake and that 
my forbearing to treat then about the business 
was only because I knew not how ray estate 
would fall out to be until his return. 



OF ENGLAND. H 

The nobleness of jour aflfections expressed to 
my Lord's family and my Lord's great afiections 
and mine ever to yours makes me desirous to 
give you all respect and satisfaction which you 
shall ever find, and how truly I do esteem and 
respect your ladyship who shall ever have 
power to command 

Your Lad® most afiectionate 

friend to serve you 

Mary Vere. 

Stiskey. Aug. 24. 

I shall desire y'r lad* answer of Sir Ferdi- 
nando Fairfax; his intention for I have not 
hearkened to any motion for my daughter, since 
it was made. I beseech you Madam, permit this 
to present my respective love to Sir W™ Consta- 
ble and my service to y'r Lad* niece. 



Doctor Lawrence Wright of the Charter 
House, London, who writes the next letter, was 
a learned and popular physician, a correspond- 
ent and " loving cousin" of Governor Winthrop 
of Massachusetts, and an honored friend of 
Governor Hopkins of Connecticut. 



12 THE FAIRFAXES 

DR. WRIGHT TO SIR WM. CONSTABLE. 
To my wortluj friend, Sir William Const ahlc : 

I understood by a line from my Lady Vere 
out of Norfolk, that according to her promise 
to your lady, so soon as her servant did return 
out of the Low Countries, she writ you, and 
which line did not only signify that now she 
was enabled to treat of a matter for her daugh- 
ter (which she could not before) but also that 
she did willingly entertain the particular motion 
formerly made by yourself [torn]. She hath 
desired me to let you understand this matter 
and my request to you is that you will be 
pleased to let me know whether the motion 
made on the gentleman's part [torn] be pursued 
or not [torn] which I presume you will readily 
inform me of as she desireth by me you should 
understand her true meaning that no mistakes 
may beget imputation on either side but a fair 
and ready conclusion either way. 

Y'r loving friend. 
Law: Wright. 

4 November, 1G86. 



OF ENGLAND. 13 

Thomas Widdrington married Frances,^ the 
sister of the young m.an whose marriage con- 
tract was being arranged. The letter was writ- 
ten to Lord Ferdinando Fairfax, and the Mary 
alluded to became the wife of Henry Arthington. 



THOS. WIDDRINGTON TO FERD. FAIRFAX. 

Sir: 

I have received yours and the Judges letter. 
I could not but blush in reading the copy of the 
latter and return you humble thanks for all. 
I purpose to see Sir W. Belt to morrow morning 
and advise with him for my course and time of 
delivering this letter. I fear nothing but his 
being in bed for I must be early being necessi- 
tated by some occasions to be at Denton to- 
morrow night. If he fail of designating me 
a fitter, I must make use of cousin Wilkinson 
to whom I have already imparted the business. 
I must trust the success to the wise Disposer 
of all things. =:■:*♦♦ j shall 
be much absent from home till the end of Tri- 



She died May 4, 1649. 



14 THE FAIRFAXES 

nity term : if you would be pleased to let my 
sister Mary keep my wife company all or some 
part of the, you should do me a great favour. 
* * * and shall ever remain, 
Y'r humble servant and 

affectionate Son in law, 

WiDDRINGTON. 
. York the 27tli Marcli, 1637. 



The following, although without signature, 
is evidently a copy of one written by Ferdi- 
nando. Lord Fairfax, to Lady Vere : 

LORD FAIRFAX TO LADY VERE. 

Madam : 

I understand by several letters from Sir W. 
that your Lad' ship demands the estatings of 
£2000 land by the year, out of which 600 by 
year jointure, and 500£ by year present main- 
tenance. 

The first with much more conveniency be 
yielded unto than the latter, which in these 
parts have not gone so high heretofore in any 
family that I can hear of what rank soever. 



OF ENGLAND. 15 

I must confess they are little enough for a 
daughter of your Ladyship, though much for 
them' to give for those whose estates are not 
drawn up to a full value. Yet madam it is my 
intention to obey you in all things as if it please 
God the match speed. I shall subscribe to the 
conditions or anything else hereafter, which 
may concern the good of them. 

I perceive likewise your Ladyship offers for 
portion £2000 at the time of marriage, and 
£2000 some time afterwards, or to estate land 
of a considerable value to descend after your 
Ladyship's death. To which I must answer, I 
know not what sum. or what manner of pay- 
ment may best suit your La'ship's convenience, 
to which for my own part I refer both, being- 
confident of your noble works and good aflec- 
tions to a well deserving child. Madam I have 
no more to say, but that I am 

Your Honor s most humble 

and ready servant. 

My father has commanded me to present 
his service to your Lad} ship and to signify 
his earnest desire to see a happy conclusion of 
this treaty. 



16 THE FAIRFAXES 

The communication of Lady Vere to the 
grandfather of the suitor, indicates a speedy 
settlement of the prehminaries, and in a few 
weeks the nuptials were celebrated. 



LADY VERE TO THOS. LORD WIDDRIXGTOX. 
For the Right Honorable, the Lord Fairfax. 

My Lord: 

I know you have from Sir Ferdinando Fair- 
fax, a full account of the proceedings of the 
business concerning my own son and my own 
daughter. I cannot let your servant go with- 
out this to say, something in it yet, notwith- 
standing some rubs in the way which Lawyers 
many times will needlessly put in. Yet now 
it is brought to that issue as I hope there will 
be no let to a good conclusion of it, so soon as 
a convenient time will permit. 

My prayer and desire is, that as the Lord 
hath hitherto brought it on, so it will please 
him to give a happy conclusion by blessing it 
to us all and making her a blessing to your 
family, as I hope she shall be, for indeed God 



OF EN(iLANI). 17 

hath given you a great blessing in your Grand- 
child, whom I look upon with much affection : 
the match hath been with so much desire on 
all sides entertained that I trust we shall all 
have the comfort of it, which is the earnest 
desire of my heart and that you may long enjoy 
the happiness of it. And so commending it to 
God, I leave you to his protection, and will ever 
approve myself to be 

Yo' L'p's 
Most affectionate friend, 

Mary Vere. 

Hackney May 28, 1637. 



On July 3d, 1638, Mary the daughter and 
heir of Thomas, third Lord Fairfax was born. 
She was married to George, the profligate Duke 
of Buckingham, on September 15, 1657, whom 
she survived, and, after a life of great trial, 
died near St. James, Westminster, October 20, 
1704, poor but respected. She left no issue. 



18 THE FAIRFAXES 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THOMAS, THIRD BARON 
OF CAMERON. 

From the Manuscript of his Covsin, Bryan Fairfax. 

" Thomas Lord Fairfax was the son of 
Ferdinando Lord Fairfax and Mary Sheffield 
daughter of the Earl of Mulgrave. He was 
born at Denton in the west of Yorkshire, Anno 
1611, Jan. 17th. He went into the Low Coun- 
try wars 1627, where General Vere, baron of 
Tilbury took special notice of him, whose 
daughter and co-heir he married Anno 1637, 
and had issue Mary, Duchess of Bucks, and 
Elizabeth. He commanded the Yorkshire troop 
of Red Caps in the first Scotch war. He was 
knighted 1640, and was chosen General of the 
Parliament's army in the unhappy civil war 
1645, and resigned his commission in 1650. 
He was signally instrumental in the restoration 
of his Majesty King Charles the 2nd declaring 
for General Monk then in Scotland (at his 
earnest request), against Lambert's army which 
pressed hard upon him as he lay at Coldstream, 



OF ENGLAND. 19 

whither my Lord Fairfax sent me his cousin 
Bryan, with a verbal answer to his letter 
brought by Sir Thomas Clargis, that he would 
appear at the head of what forces he could 
raise in Yorkshire the first of January 16io; 
which he did to so good eftect, that in three 
days time, the report of my Lord Fairfax's 
opposing them, being spread about Lambert's 
army, the Irish Brigade consisting of 1200 
horse deserted him and sent to offer their 
service to my Lord Fairfax,^ and several foot 
regiments at the same time declared for their 
old General Fairfax, and in 5 days time Lam- 
bert himself with ten men stole away from his 
own army. 

" Then General Monk marched into England 
and offered the command of the arm}^ to my 
Lord Fairfax, but he refused ; only advised him 
at his house at Appleton where Monk gave 
him a visit, to consider that there would be no 



1 " My Lord Fairfax was theu at Arthingtou. with about 
100 men, when an officer came and inquired for Mr. Bryan 
Fairfax (now Dr. FT 'x) to bring him to my Lord, with this 
kind and seasonable offer of their assistance." — Manuscrqit 
note. 



20 THE FAIRFAXES 

peace in England until the Nation was settled 
upon the old foundation of Monarchy and King 
Charles the Second restored. And in the mean 
time to call the old secluded members into this 
Parliament, which had now got into their 
places again. The General was more reserved 
than he needed to have been upon this free 
discourse of my Lord Fairfax, being alone with 
him in his stud}', which gave my Lord occasion 
to suspect him ever after, until he declared him- 
self the spring following that he was of the 
same mind, having received another letter at 
London from my Lord Fairfax, delivered by 
the same hand Bryan Fairfax, and accompanied 
with the address of all the gentlemen of York- 
shire for a free Parliament, and that they 
would pay no taxes till it met. 

" King Charles himself did often acknowledge 
these services, not only by granting him a 
general pardon, but upon all occasions speaking 
kindly of him, and praising his great courage, 
his modesty, and his honesty. 

" In the year IG60 he was one of the Deputies 
of that Parliament or Convention sent to King 
Charles at the Hague (where Bryan Fairfax went 



OF ENGLAND. 21 

with him) to invite his Majesty over into Eng- 
land, where he was kindly received, his Majesty 
sending my Lord Gerard to compliment him 
particularly and to conduct him to the court, 
where he kissed his Majesty's hand. After his 
Majesty's restoration and coronation, my Lord 
Fairfax retired from London to his house at 
New Appleton near York (a house which he 
built a few years before) and where he peace- 
ably spent the remainder of his life, between the 
pains of the gout and stone, with a courage 
and patience equal to that he had shown in 
the unhappy war. The wounds and fatigue 
of that war brought those diseases upon him 
whereof he writes a short account, which he 
calls a Memorial of his actions in the Northern 
War from the year 1642 to 1644, and some- 
thing in his own vindication after he was General. 
The original is in Denton Library, The last 
seven years of his life that disease which he was 
most subject to, the gout, occasioned or increased 
by the heats and colds and loss of blood, the many 
wounds he got in the war, this disease took 
from him the use of his legs, and confined him 
to a chair, wherein he sat like an old Roman, 



22 THE FAIRFAXES 

his manly countenance striking love and rever- 
ence into all that beheld him, and yet mixed 
with so much modesty and meekness, as no 
figure of a mortal man ever represented more. 

" Most of his time did he spend in religious 
duties, and much of the rest in reading good 
books, which he was qualified to do in all 
modern languages, as appears by those he hath 
writ and translated. Several volumes of his 
own handwriting are now in the study at 
Denton, with my brother Henry, Lord Fairfax. 

"He died of a short sickness, a fever, at 
Appleton, November the 11th, 1671. The last 
morning of his life he called for a Bible, saying 
his eyes grew dim and read the 42d Psalm "As 
the hart panteth after the water brooks" etc. 

"And so he quietly yielded up his soul to God 
in the 60th year of his age. His funeral 
sermon was preached by Mr. Richard Stratton, 
wherein he gives him his true character. He 
was buried at Billrough near York, where a 
decent monument is erected to his memory. 
His Lady was there buried also." 



OF ENGLAND. ' 23 

William Fairfax of Steeton, whose mother 
was a daughter of Lord Sheffield, and whose 
mother's sister was also the wife of his relative 
Ferdinando Fairfax, came back from the conti- 
nent and joined the army of parliament, and 
was as brave as his relatives. In a skirmish at 
Montgomery Castle on November 20, 1644, he 
received eleven wounds, which proved fatal. 

The Sir Wm. Sheffield mentioned in the letter 
was probably his mother s brother. 



MR. WM. FAIRFAX TO MR. ROBERT BARWICK. 

From NoRMANDiE the 

9 of December, 1640. 
For his much respected friend^ 

Mr. Robert BaricicJce, at his house in York. 

Sir: 

Sir William Shefeild's man tells me that you 
refuse to pay the 500 pound you offered before 
the day of payment which will be due at 
Christmas. For my part had it not been 3^our 
own offer I should not have expected it. I am 
sure I have performed all the conditions on my 
part, except Thomas Procter's lease, which I 



24 THE FAIRFAXES 

in treated you to stay till I came into Yorkshire, 
but since you will not trust me I have sent my 
man on purpose to see it done and to receive 
the money. 

As for the dove coate I will repare itt as 
Sonne as the season of the yeare will serve. I 
have sent you the fine. I know no more is to 
be done saveing my Lord Fairfax his release, 
and my sister's which I intend to gett at Lon- 
don very shortly. Bryan tells me you are 
troubled about a little parsell of land which 
belongs to Newton thatt lies within Toulston 
Land, for that I shall satisfy you, when I come 
to Yorke for I am sure it is nott in your revicu- 
ler, no more is the majesty of the law. Butt 
I will satisfy you fully when I come, till which 
time I rest 

Your loveing freind and servantt 
Will: Fairfax. 



OF EN<fLAND. 25 

The wife of Robert Barwick of Tolston, 
recorder of York, was a daughter of Walter 
Strickland of Boynton, and sister of Sir Wil- 
liam Strickland, prominent during the protec- 
torate. She was a woman of fine intellect and 
deep piety, recognized by all those who knew 
the truth of religion as an " elect lady." 

Her son Robert, in whom so many hopes 
centered, and for whom his mother offered so 
many prayers, was drowned in 1666, in the 
prime of life. Her surviving child, Frances, 
married Henry, the fourth Lord Fairfax. 
Lady Barwick at the age of 81 died on October 
4th, 1682. 



URSULA BARWICKE TO HER SON ROBERT. 

Roben : 

The first thing I have to say is the Lord God 
bless and guide you in his ways, that you may 
make his laws your delight and meditate thereon 
day and night. I have often desired you to 
make the word of God your rule of all your actions 
in this life, and to read very much the proverbs 
of wise Solomon, for their is much wisdom 



26 THE FAIRFAXES 

to be had. Your happiness is very much of 
my comfort and contentment. I hope your 
being at Boynton with your best friends will be 
very comfortable to you, and such good com- 
pany and society as that place doth afford, may 
be very much for your advantage, if you will 
have patience to stay there some time. 

I know you will be welcome to them all and 
kindly used. I have sent you such necessaries 
as I think fit for you : if they may be accept- 
able and as well taken as I heartily mean them 
let me know what you want and I will supply 
you with whatever you will have. You have 
been too careless of your habit at home, I pray, 
be not so, when you are abroad. It is seemly 
for young men to be neat. I pray you to have 
a care of your health this sickly time, we 
cannot truly value that great blessing of health 
until we want it, and so the like of all other 
blessings we do enjoy. Roben I pray you be 
cheerful, and let our greatest frown be for our 
sins, that we do not live such lives as are pleas- 
ing to that great and most merciful God whose 
mercies never failed them that trusted in Him. 
Roben I do beg of God that he will be pleased 



OF ENGLAND. 27 

to give 3^ou heavenly comforts, and then your 
life will be more comfortable, and then vain 
thoughts will not trouble you, and then yoij 
will be a happy man, and delight to be in good 
company, and godly society will be most pleas- 
ing unto you. 

Solitariness is not good for you, nor will be 
any advantage to you, but do you very much 
harm, this is true and you will find it to be so. 
I will not trouble more at this time but to 
present my most humble service to brother 
Strickland, and my Lady Frances and my dear 
nephew Strickland . I bless God for his recovery. 
I hope God will please to bless him, and make 
him a strong pillar to uphold the house of 
Boynton. I do most heartily wish him all true 
happiness and comfort. I pray you to tell him 
what I say. My love to Mr. Rowe and thank 
him for all his kindness when he was at 
London. Roben the Lord bless and keep you 
now and ever. 

Your affectionate truly loving mother 

to do you all the good I can. 
Ursula Barwicke. 



28 THE FAIRFAXES 

Henry, fourth Lord Fairfax, was the grand- 
son of the first lord, and the son of the Rev. 
Henry Fairfax of Bolton Percy. His brother 
Bryan was a man of literary culture, the 
translator of the life of the distinguished 
Huguenot M. de Plessis. Bryan, son of Bryan, 
was the secretary of the archbishop of Canter- 
bury. The amiable Thoresby in his diary 
mentions him as an honored friend and "a gen- 
tleman of great accomplishment and reading." 
His nephew Henry, son of Henry Lord Fair- 
fax, became sheriff of Yorkshire, a post that 
had been filled by several of his ancestors. 

Nathaniel Bladen, barrister, who had married 
Isabella, the daughter of William Fairfax of 
Steeton, urged the fourth Lord Fairfax to stand 
for parliament, as every protestant feared a 
popish plot. 



OF ENGLAND. 29 

NATHANIEL BLADEN TO HENRY, LORD FAIRFAX. 

Jan'y 25tli, 1678. 
My Lord : 

It hath pleased the Kmg to dissolve the 
Pl'm't^ and to summon another against the sixth 
of March next, whereof I give your Lordship 
this early notice, that thereby you may take 
the opportunity of endearing yourself in a 
signal measure to the King and Country, by the 
representing your County in Pl'm't, a trust you 
will find them willing to confer on your Lord- 
ship for your own sake, as also for the perform- 
ance your family hath given them on the like 
occasion. 

And to encourage your Lordship's heart the 
more I give you the assurance of a noble Second 
(who can contribute no inconsiderable share of 
interest to carry on the joint concern) my Lord 
Treasurers" eldest son, my Lord Latimer. 

My Lord, let not your modesty, or any other 
pretence of indisposition of health do yourself, 



1 This parliament had existed since 1661. 
-Thomas Osborn, Earl of Danby. 



30 THE FAIRFAXES 

your Country, your King that injury as to 
induce you to decline so noble a cause, at a 
time when the interest of King and Church 
calls for the assistance of men well principled 
in religion and loyalty. My Lord Treasurer 
hath applied to your Lordship (before all per- 
sons in the County, with the King's approbation, 
like an echo reverberated from those kind 
characters, wherewith his Lordship ever took 
occasion to represent you to his majesty) for an 
associate to his son, a favour which for the 
kind intention, ought not to be rejected. 

But my Lord, if all I have said cannot pre- 
vail with your Lordship to appear on the 
public theatre, and that I have not reached 
some reasons which you think will excuse you 
to God, and your own conscience, if by your 
unwillingness to engage herein, you suffer a 
man to gain that point, who instead of balsam, 
shall cast vinegar into the wounds of Church 
and State and make the little scratches incura- 
ble ulcers. Then, let me beg of your Lordship 
(all arguments laid aside) to give your interest 
for my sake to my Lord Latimer, who will use 
that and all other of his own and my Lord 



OF ENGLAND. 31 

Treasurer's advantages to serve your Lordship 
and your family. 

And this I heg for my own sake as presuming 
upon your Lordship's particular kindness to me, 
and I must tell your Lordship ingeniously, I 
serve a generous master, and that it may turn 
to account in my fortune. I will also put you 
in mind that it is still in his Lordship's power 
to serve the posterity of Col. Charles Fairfax. 

I could wish your Lordship would also think 
of some borough where to cause my cousin, 
your son to be elected. I presume it may not 
be amiss to join interest with Sir Thomas 
Slingsby at Knarsburghe, but I leave the place 
to your thoughts, only wish the thing may not 
be omitted, for there is no school of improve- 
ment, for a young man of his quality, like the 
House of Commons. 

My Lord I pray give me leave to insert my 
humble service to my Lady and pardon this 
trouble from 

Your Lordship's 
Most humble & obedient servant 

Nathaniel Bladen. 



32 THE FAIRFAXES 

That your Lordship may perceive that I do 
not desire to link you with a person your Lord- 
ship may be ashamed of, I thought good to 
enclose your Lordship the speech my Lord 
Treasurer made in the House of Lords to his 
accusations, than which nothing can show his 
Lordship better. And tho' Mr. Montague's 
endeavouring to take sanctuary in France by 
putting himself on board of a French shallop 
in a livery as servant to my Lady Harvy his 
sister's steward may declare his interest greater 
there,^ yet I refer you to two of his own letters 
to make your judgment. 



1 Macaulay says, " The French court, which knew Danby 
to be its mortal enemy, artfully contrived to ruin him, by 
making him pass for its friend. Louis by the instrumen- 
tality of Ralph Montague, a faithless and shameless man, 
who had resided in France as minister from England, laid 
before the House of Commons proofs that the treasurer, had 
been concerned in an application made by the court of 
Whitehall, to the court of Versailles for a sum of money." 



OF ENGLAND. 33 

BRYAN FAIRFAX TO HEXRY FAIRFAX, ESQ. 

London, Oct. 30, 1683. 
Dear Nephew : 

I thank you for your kind letter and many 
other favours I ree'd from you in the country 
and visits at Appleton. and your welcoming us 
at Tolston. This kind disposition of yours to 
your friends shows you to be father's own son, 
and you will find respect accordingly especially 
from me, who rejoice to see you resemble the 
man I love above all others, and I thank God 
I may boast that the bond of brotherly love 
hath been kept inviolable between us, and I 
wish it may be the same between your brother 
and you. I am sure it will on your part 
by the respectful behavior I observe in you 
towards him. My wife is very sensible of ^^our 
loving and kind behavior to her in the country, 
which makes sufficient amends for the want of 
it in others. Your old acquaintance ni}^ son 
Brian presents his service to you. We expect 
your brother at London to morrow. Let your 
father know that my lady Duchess is pretty 
well recovered, and she shall know how hardly 
he prayed for it. 



34 THE FAIRFAXES 

Present my service to your father and mother, 
a letter now and then will be very acceptable, 
advise him not to walk alone for fear of his fits 
* * * * God have you in his protection. 
Your ever loving uncle, 

and humble serv't, 

Br: Fairfax. 

Mr. Henry Fairfax at Tolston near Tadcaster, Yorkshire. 



Frances, a daughter of the fourth Lord Fair- 
fax, fell in love with the Rev. Mr. Rymer the 
private chaplain. Her father. Lord Fairfax, 
was unwilling that the engagement should 
continue ; but love conquers all things, and in 
time, she became the parson's wife. 

HENRY, FOURTH LORD FAIRFAX, TO HIS SON HENRY. 

June 5. 

I would have you in my name to command 
my daughter Fr. as she ever expects my 
blessing or to see my face to forbear conversing 
with Mr. Rymer. He talks to me of a contract. 
I expect she should renounce it so far if it be 
one, as never to proceed further to marry him ; 



OF ENGLAND. 35 

in this I expect as her father to be obeyed, and 
let me know her answer. 

Y'r aiFectionate father 

Hen Fairfax. 
Pray send her answer back by Mr. Banks 
immediately. 

Mr. H. Fairfax at Tolston. 



SHERIFF HENRY FAIRFAX TO HIS WIFE. 

York, March 10, 1684. 
My Dear : 

I waited on your sisters last night, and heard 
Sir Will : Lowther intends to send his coach 
for them the week after the Assizes. 

I've sent therefore to let you know it. I am 
returned upon the Grand Jury so that I cannot 
go with you myself to Preston but you may go 
when you please or come hither and go from 
hence with me, but it will be next week before 
I can be at liberty. My love to you and my 
sisters. Wishing you your healthes to be very 
merry this is all at present from 

Y'r truly affect, husband 
H. F. 

My lady Stapilton and Mr. Peebles are dead. 



36 THE FAIRFAXES 



LORD FAIRFAX'S RELEASE IN FAVOR OF HIS SON 
HENRY. 

To all persons to tvliom these presents shall come the Right 
Honowdhle Henry Lord Fairfax sends greeting. 

Whereas Henry Fairfax my younger son hath 
by my commission received several rents and 
other sums of money due to me, and I am 
satisfied with the account and disposal of the 
sum made by my said son. 

Now know that I the said Lord Fairfax in 
consideration of said accounts have remised and 
released and by these presents do remise and 
release to the said young Fairfax my son, all 
actions, accounts, and demands whatsoever. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and seal this seventeen day of September, 
in the first year of the reign of our Sovereign 
Lord James the Second, by the grace of God of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith, Annoq : Dom 1685. 

Hen. Fairfax. 

Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
Mich. Rymer, 
John Buxton. 



OF ENGLAND. 37 

The fourth Lord Fairfax, the ancestor of 
the American family, proved a worthy son of 
the rector of Bolton Percy. Religion was 
always honored while he lived at Denton Hall. 
Thoresby in his diary, under date of June 8, 
1684, writes : " Was much pleased yester-night 
with the good order observed in my Lordship's 
religious family, all which was called in and 
Mr. Clapham [the chaplain] read three or four 
psalms and a chapter or two out of the Old 
Testament, and as many out of the New, then 
after a psalm sung, prayed very seriously." 
He died in April, 1688, and a crowd of all 
classes followed his remains to the tomb, the 
poor of the neighborhood being sincere mourn- 
ers. 

He left two sons : Thomas, who succeeded to 
the title, and Henry. 

Thomas, fifth Lord Fairfax, married Catharine 
Culpepper, the daughter of Lord Culpepper, who 
had been governor of Virginia. 

Henry married Anna Harrison of South Cave, 
and in 1691 was high sheriff of York. His 
wife's sister, Eleanora, in 1689, married Henry 
Washington, a near relative of John and Law- 



38 THE FAIRFAXES 

rence, the emigrants to America. The seal 
used by Henry Washington bore the same coat 
of arms as that of General George Washington. 



HENRY WASHINGTON TO HENRY FAIRFAX. 

Oct. 23, 94. 

DearS'": 

On Monday night I had yours of the 16*^ 
and sure you think me guilty of a sham as you 
call it. I am glad you had so good a witness 
as one you call a friend to let you know it, but 
must beg the favour of you only to let me know 
his name which when done, if I do not prove 
him a lying rascal, then I'll be contented to 
wear the name of coward and villain while I 

And since your friend that you style him 
though not worthy of the character that told 
you so great a lie, if you will not ask him why 
he imposed it on you, let me but know him and 
I'll ask him why he did on me, for never a son 

of a in England shall belie me with a 

design to make a misunderstanding betwixt me 



OF ENGLAND. 39 

and mv friend but I"ll know his reason and use 
proper methods to convict him. 

* * * * And if I cannot prove my dis- 
bursement then I am to blame but I can 
produce vouchers for it all. And I thank God 
my care and conduct were such, otherwise I 
guess how they would have been allowed. I 
ask your pardon for this digression. My wife's 
service and mine wait on you and my sister. 
And I am Sir, 

Y'r suspected Bro. your 

real friend &; serv. 
Hen: "Washington. 



Thomas, fifth Lord Fairfax, was a member 
of parliament in 1689, colonel of the Third 
Hussar Guards, brigadier general in 1701 and 
died in 1710. His wife was Catharine Culpep- 
per. He was more extravagant than his pre- 
decessors. Denton, formerly the site of a 
nunner}-, was much improved by Thomas the 
third lord. He built the stately mansion, with 
a gallery one hundred and fifty feet in length. 



40 THE FAIRFAXES 

and numerous rooms with mantel pieces of deli- 
cate and variegated marbles. 

The fifth lord continued to improve, and in 
1703 employed Gyles, the celebrated artist, who 
painted the window at University College, Ox- 
ford, to place in Denton Chapel the noblest 
painted glass then known in the north of 
England. 

His expenditures exceeding his income, he 
became involved, and was much troubled by 
creditors. He died in London on January 6, 
1710, and his servant who attended him robbed 
him of the little money he had left. The old 
Fairfax place now passed into the hands of 
strangers. Thoresby visited the spot in 1712, 
and says : " Was in company of old Robert 
Taite, who has seen the chapel and some remains 
of the nunnery, the old house pulled down, 
and a stately new one erected by Thomas, Lord 
Fairfax, the general, and now most of that 
pulled down, and a much more convenient 
though not quite so large erected by Mr. Milner. 
He remembers the first Thomas, Lord Fairfax, 
and his son Ferdinando, was servant to the third 
Lord, the general, and the Lord Henry and the 



OF ENGLAND. 41 

last Lord Thomas were also survived by him, 
and he now lives in the sixth Lord Fairfax's 
mie. 



THOMAS, FIFTH LORD FAK^FAX. TO HIS BROTHER 
HENRY. 

London, Nov. 20, 1G97. 
Dear Brother: 

I came to town last night and am going now 

to JCensington to wait on the King. I will do 

what I can to serve vou. I will speak to the 

Duke of Devon, and will speak to the Lords of 

the Treasury but I know not what to think of 

ye matter since you are told they are likelj' to 

sink the office. I will raise money for 3^ou with 

all the speed I can, but Barradall drains me 

now, and the paym't I have had of the 

Treasury has been paper at nigh 40 per cent 

loss, such favour have I had. I wish with all 

my heart you had this, and if it continue I 

will use ni}^ poor interest. I cannot remember 

the particulars of my cosen Stapilton's disease, 

this in general I remember some thing of your 

acknowledging a debt to him one day and then 

when it was to be paid shuffled and disowned 

it. I cannot tell how but a very bad story it 



42 THE FAIRFAXES 

was, indeed I was ashamed, and uneasie at it 

and cannot now recollect what it was unless I 

heard him repeat it, which would not be very 

agreeable. I thought my cosen would not tell 

me a lye against you, and if it was true I could 

not tell to say in your excuse, but the non-pay- 

m't I am positive was not the chief matter of 

complaint. If I can have any hopeful prospect 

of your affair I will follow it with dilligence, 

and send you the best advice I can. But I am 

not like you with drawn cart horses (I own it) 

that will pull forever at large unmoveable oak. 

Pray give my humble service to all our friends, 

I am 

Y'r affect. Brother, 

T. Fairfax. 

Excuse haste, but I hope you may send my 

letter. 



RALPH THORESBY, TO THOMAS, FIFTH LORD FAIRFAX. 

My Lord : 

I cannot forbear writing tho' the occasion be 
less grateful, but being yesternight in company 
of some of our magistrates, I was told that 
your Lordship not appearing 'twas verily tho't 
the Lord Irwyn and Sir John Kay would carry 



OF ENGLAND. 43 

it the next election (which they seem to expect 
shortly). Tis certain my Lord Irwyn made 
the Corporation a visit on Saturday, and will 
doubtless have our vote, will your Lordship be 
pleased to signify your design in time, for tho' 
the country ought rather to court for the future, 
as well as thank your Lordship for what is past, 
yet as the world goes, notwithstanding the 
great services your Lordship has been so emi- 
nent for, there seems to be a necessity to let 
your friends know that your Lordship is willing 
to stand for the County. I humbly beg your 
Lordships pardon for this freedom, but I cannot 
bear that your truly ancient as well as right 
honorable familv should be excluded, and besides 
the honor I bear to the family in general, your 
Lordship's special respects to me, has laid a 
peculiar obligation upon my Lord. 

Your Lordship's most obliged 

and most humble servt. 

Ralph Thoresby. 
Leeds, Sept. 9, 1701. 

I shall be glad of the honor of a line, that 
I may have a pardon for this boldness, under 
your Lordship's own hand. 



44 THE FAIRFAXES. 

My service pray to the mayor and Mr. Bryan 
Fairfax. 



Ralph Thoresby was the son of a Leeds mer- 
chant who during the civil wars had been an 
officer under the Fairfaxes. With his father 
he founded the once celebrated Thoresby Mu- 
seum. He was a fine scholar, singular, con- 
scientious and devout, a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and although a dissenter, among his 
friends and correspondents were some of the 
bishops of the established church. He pub- 
lished the History of Leeds, and at the age 
of 68 died October 10, 1725. Dunton, in the 
Whipping Post, says: "Ralph Thoresby F. R. S. 
is a very ingenious, sober gentleman and 
antiquary who hath a curious collection of 
natural and artificial rarities of many years 
standing. He is also a great preserver of manu- 
scripts of all sorts. He is kind and respectful 
to his friends, and never better pleased than 
when they can present him with some piece of 
antiquity or valuable manuscript." 



PART SECOND. 



FAIRFAX FAMILY 



AMERICA. 



THE FAIRFAXES IN AMERICA. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE. 

William Fairfax was the early and constant 
adviser, and his sons George William, and Bryan 
the youthful associates, and subsequent corre- 
spondents of him whose name is above every 
other name in America — George Washington. 

Burk and Campbell in their histories of Vir- 
ginia, erroneously state that William, the founder 
of the Fairfax family of Virginia, was the smi 
instead of cousin of Thomas, Lord Fairfax, who 
lived in the valley of the Shenandoah, and was 
unmarried. The father of William was the 
Hon. Henry Fairfax, sheriff of Yorkshire, who 
was the son of the fourth Lord Fairfax. It has 
already been stated that his mothers name 
before marriage was Anna Harrison, a sister-in- 
law of one of the Washingtons of England. 

His only brother Henry was well educated, 
but led a dissolute life, and died in England in 



48 THE FAIRFAXES 

1759 ; William was born in 1691, and at an early 
age, was sent to the collegiate school established 
by Sir John Lowther, afterward Viscount Lons- 
dale ; but through the influence of a relative, 
Capt. Fairfax of the Royal navy, went to sea 
when very young. Returning from this voyage 
he served in the British army in Spain, under 
Col. Martin Bladen, who had married a Fairfax. 
The letters written to his widowed mother 
indicate not only strong filial affection, but cor- 
rect principles. For a time he was stationed at 
St. Helena, and subsequently at the Bahamas, 
where he married Sarah, a daughter of Major 
Walker, and was appointed chief justice of 
the island. About the year 1725 on account of 
the unhealthiness of the climate, he removed to 
New England, having received the appointment 
of collector of the customs at Salem and Marble- 
head. Here he was bereaved by the death of 
his wife in the year 1731, who left him four 
children. 

Subsequently he married a Miss Deborah 
Clarke of Salem, an intimate friend of his first 
wife, who had expressed a wish on her death bed 
that she might be the step-mother of her children. 



OF AMERICA. 49 

Thomas, the sixth Lord Fairfax, who became 
the proprietor of the northern neck of Virginia, 
through his mother, who was Catharine, 
daughter of Lord Culpepper, hearing that his 
agent was not faithful to his interests, invited 
his cousin William to leave New England and 
become the superintendent of his estates. 

The ofter in 1734 was accepted, and he at first 
took up his residence in Westmoreland county, 
but subsequently removed to a plantation called 
Belvoir, fourteen miles below Alexandria. 

His daughter Anne by his first wife, 
married Lawrence Washington, who settled 
four miles above his father-in-law, and named 
his place Mount Vernon, in honor of the admiral 
with whom he had served while in the navy. 

George, the brother of Lawrence, was thus at 
an early age brought under the influence of Mr. 
Fairfax, 'and on Sept. 10th, 1746, Lawrence 
Washington received a letter from his father- 
in-law relative to his brother, then fourteen 
years of age, in which he writes, '" George has 
been with us, and says he will be steady, and 
thankfully follow your advice as his best friend. 
I gave him his mother s letter to deliver, with a 



50 THE FAIRFAXES 

caution not to show his." Mr. Fairfax had used 
his influence to obtain a position for George in 
the navy, but the mother would not consent to 
his going to sea, for " several persons told her it 
was a bad scheme." 

Not long after this his uncle Joseph Ball, re- 
siding in England, wrote to his mother,^ " I 
understand you are advised, and have some 
thoughts of putting your son to sea. I think 
he had better be put apprentice to a trade, for 
a common sailor before the mast has by no 
means the common liberty of the subject; for 
they will press him from a ship where he has 
fifty shillings a month, and make him take 
twenty-three, and cut and beat him like a negro, 
or rather like a dog. And as to any considerable 
promotion in the navy it is not to be expected, 
as there are always so many gaping for it here, 
who have influence, and he has none." 

The year that it was proposed that George 
should go to sea, the eccentric bachelor Thomas, 
the sixth Lord Fairfax, made a second visit to 
Virginia, and remained there until his death at 

'Meade. 



OF AMERICA. 51 

Greenway Court in the Shenandoah valley a 
half century later; and under his directions 
William Fairfax in 1748 sends his son George 
William, a young man, and George Washington, 
then sixteen years of age, on a surveying tour 
in the upper part of the northern neck of Vir- 
ginia. In a journal of this tour kept by Wash- 
ington, he states, under date of April 12th, 
1748 : " Mr. Fairfax got safe home, and I to my 
brother's house, which concludes my journal." 

Colonel William Fairfax was not only col- 
lector of his majesty's customs for the South 
Potomac, but after the death of Blair, president 
of the council of Virginia. At Great Meadows, 
in June, 1754, Washington named Queen Ale- 
quippa's son, Colonel Fairfax, in compliment to 
his valuable friend, and gave the young chief a 
medal. While he was there encamped Mr. 
Fairfax wrote to him : " I will not doubt you, 
having public prayers in the camp, especially 
when the Indian families are your guests, that 
they seeing your plain manner of worship, may 
have their curiosity excited to be informed 
why we do not use the ceremonies of the 
French." 



52 THE FAIRFAXES. 

On September 3d, 1757, William Fairfax 
died, and Virginia was deprived of the services 
of one of her most judicious councilors. 

His children hy Sarah Walker, his first tvife, 
were George W., born in 1724. 

Thomas of the British navy killed in action 
in East Indies, June 26, 1746. 

Anne, wife of Lawrence Washington, and 
after his death married George Lee. 

Sarah, wife of John Carlyle of Alexandria. 

His children hy second wife, Debcxrah Clarke, 
ivere Bryan, the eighth Lord Fairfax. 

William, who died from wounds at the siege 
of Quebec. 

Hannah, wife of Warner Washington. 



CORRESPOIs^DEI^CE 



HON. HENRY FAIRFAX TO HIS WIFE. 

LowTHER,] Sept. 24, 98. 
Dear : 

I were much to blame if I tell you our ways 
and weather was pleasant, for both were bad to 
a great degree yet arrived safely here yesterday, 
about two in the afternoon, finding my Lord, 
Lady and rest of friends in good health, and 
had a kind reception. 

The first day we arrived at Caterick, the 
next at Appleby where I left Mrs. Lowther 
with her mother, who entertained us very hos- 
pitably. Major Lowther, my Lord's uncle sent 
for his two sons, and Mr. Kirk for his son to 
keep Henry company, so Mr. Kirk and I went 



' Lowther was the seat of Sir Joha Lowther, who, in the 
year that this letter was written, became Viscount Lonsdale. 
His mansion was one of the most elegant of the age, and 
his library and paintings displayed refined taste. Interested 
in education he foimded Lowther College. He died in 1700. 
In time the school was discontinued, and the building was 
used for a .stocking factory. 



54 THE FAIRFAXES 

with them to the colledge. Henry ^ liking his 
companions was very well contented to stay 
with them. Mr. T. Kirk is his bed fellow in a 
large room, in the middle story ; in the same 
chamber is a large bed wherein Sir Matthew 
Pearson's three sons lie. There are about 
twenty-one or twenty-two young gentlemen, and 
six or seven more are shortly expected, so that 
the number my Lord intends to accept of will 
soon be complete. 

I am sorry that my Godson omitted coming 
at this juncture if he is designed to come at all. 
Besides their school learning they are taught to 
sing psalms, and tomorrow will be the first time 
they are to sing in consort in the church pro- 
vided the [torn] get their seat built. I hope Will, 
will make one of the chorus next Spring for the 
French master says, sooner the boys come the 
better provided they be in the grammar. Some 
are already come that be but ten years old, some 
about that age especially the Major's son, is as 
tall as Mr. Marshall of Newton and much thicker. 
I approve highly of every thing, and my Lord 



1 Polder brother of William Fairfax. 



OF AMERICA. 55 

and Lady most of all, for they both join in en- 
couraging the noble and generous undertaking. 

As for my Lord's house I must not pretend 
to describe it at this time, neither my [torn] nor 
leisure will admit of it, so must conclude. Love, 
duty and service to yourself and children and 
friends. 

This morning the weather seems to take up 
so I hope it may do the like with you that we 
may reap our harvest. The white Gelding's 
back being sadly galled is the worst disaster 
which befell us, mine not sc bad, makes us 
think of staying here till Thursday or Friday 
next. We had some thoughts of being at 
Denton tomorrow sennight however. In so 
long a time we may alter our measures. 

At an early period William Fairfax entered 
the navy, and on the eve of going on board the 
ship wrote the following affectionate letter to 
his brother Henry who was wayward and dis- 
solute. The cousin Dick Washington spoken 
of, was the son of Henry Washington, who 
married Anna Harrison of South Cave, a sister 
of his mother. 



56 THE FAIRFAXES 

WILLIAM FAIRFAX TO HIS BROTHER HENRY FAIRFAX. 

March the 3, 1709-10. 
Dear Brother : 

To what I should have imputed your silence 
I confess I knew not, for I could not apprehend 
how all your time was employed that one or 
two minutes could not be gained for one's ser- 
vice. But after this frank confession and ear- 
nest desire for remission I shall forget what's 
past, 

Tho' our separation has been pretty long yet 
I in nowise despair of another greeting which 
I rather wish to be at Towlston, than any 
where else. 

I am glad your's assures me of your inno- 
cence, as to what you have been charged with ; 
tho' I must to justify myself, insist that I never 
too easily gave credit to any ill report of you, 
but the author who has been lately in town in 
my opinion would'nt have represented things 
worse than they really were ; however if they 
were true I must impute it to the flush of youth, 
unwilling to be limited within narrow bounds. 
I would willingly inform you of my author, if 



OF AMERICA. 57 

I could depend that your knowledge thereof 
were no other than to satisfy your curiosity. 

I have shown yours to cousin Dick Washing- 
ton who sends you his sentiments here. 

You may with little entreaty engage me to 
answer yours, when my mind is so easily 
inclined thereto on its own accord. I earnestly 
wish you all happiness and pleasure. By this 
time you will hear of the arrival of your neigh- 
bour W. Hammond who set forward last Monday. 

The next time you hear from me I believe 
will be from my ship, tho' I dont mention it as 
a precaution against your writing because I 
cant depend on the certaintj* of it. I am with 
unalterable affection. 

Your endearing Brother 
W. Fairfax. 



LETTERS OF RICHARD WASHINGTON TO HE^^RY 
FAIRFAX. 

From Mrs. Crosier's, Westminster. 

Dear boy : 

As for Sir Robt. Berwick's deed of settlement 

I can assure you 'tis not in my custody. When 
8 



58 THE FAIRFAXES 

our papers were brought from Lincoln's Inns I 
searched 'em for that purpose, but could not 
find any such paper amongst them. I will 
write to my mother about the pictures, and 
take care to send you 'em. My humble respects 
to my Aunt. All our news at present is the 
general rumour of peace, and the sentence of 
Dr. Sacheverell.^ He is cast and to be sentenced 
for three years, his books to be burnt by the 
common hangman. I should be very proud to 
hear what execution hath been done among the 
foxes this season. I am Sir 

Yr affectionate kinsman, 

R. W. 



1 Henry Saclieverell, D.D., was born about 1672 and in 
college was a chum of Addison the poet. In two sensational 
and political sermons he advocated the jure dlvino view 
of church and state, which excited the whigs of parliament 
and caused his impeachment. 

He was tried, and sentenced to be silenced for three years, 
and his obnoxious sermons to be burned. The Duchess of 
Marlborough called him " an ignorant and impudent incen- 
diary." Bishop Burnet says : " He possessed little of religion, 
virtue, or good sense, but forced himself to preferment by 
railing at dissenters and low churchmen." He died in 
obscurity in 1724. 



OF AMERICA. 59 



From Mrs. Crosier's in old Palace, 

Westminster, June 17, 1710. 
Dear Harry: 

I hope YOU will not impute my freedom to 
proceed from any disrespect being justly allowed 
to our atRnity. But will rather favour this 
with such a friendly reception as may engage 
you to a return of these my first offers ; for 
never having received any permission or coun- 
tenance for a correspondence I have constrained 
myself till now. But lately reflecting on the 
obscurity and solitariness of a country retired 
life, I thought a friendl}* access by lines might 
not be at present unacceptable. 'T would be a 
great satisfaction to me to hear how my coun- 
trymen divert themselves. What store of foxes, 
hares, stags, etc., you have killed last winter 
and what race was last run, and whose was the 
winning horse. In return I would acquaint jou 
wdth all the news this populous town affords. 
At present we have a sort of pestilence amongst 
us. My late Secretary of State is turned out, 
who was my Lord Sunderland and my Lord 
Dartmouth put in his room. The Governor 



60 THE FAIRFAXES 

of Doway insisted on some unreasonable articles 
in the capitulation he sent to the Duke of Marl- 
boro they were rejected. However we fancy by 
this 'tis surrendered. If you should see Mr. 
Hammond present my humble service. All 
here give their respects to Aunt and yourself. 
Pray accept mine & believe that I am with 
unalterable affection, Dear Harry. 

Your aftectionate kinsman^ 

and humble servt. 
R. Washington. 



1 General Washington, in a letter to the Earl of Buchan 
says : " The family of Fairfax of which you speak, is also 
related to me. * * * What remains of the old stock 
are near neighbours to my estate at Mount Vernon." 

Henry Fairfax, sheriff of Yorkshire, and Richard Wash- 
ington, married sisters Anna and Eleanora Harrison, of South 
Cave. William, son of Henry Fairfax, became the proprie- 
tor of the estate adjoining Mount Vernon, and his daughter 
married Lawrence, the brother of General George Wash- 
ington. 

Richard Washington, the writer of this letter, was a first 
cousin and schoolmate of William Fairfax of Virginia, and 
in after years a resident of London, and correspondent of 
General Washington. 

The Earl of Buchan was a connection of General Wash- 
ington, David, 4th Earl of Buchan, having married Frances, 
daughter of Henry Fairfax of Hurst. 

Mr. Chester of London, in Nno England Genealogical 
Register^ has recently pointed out the error of Sparks in 



OF AMERICA. 61 

CAPT. ROBERT FAIRFAX ' R. X,, TO MRS. AXX FAIRFAX. 

Cousin : 

I have yours of the 8th inst, and have sent 

up for your son, who I expect in town to-morrow, 

and have given his Captain the very letter 

which I got for him, so you will accordingly 

consider his equipment for his voyage being it 

will not be long consequently, before the ship 

will be going to sea; that he may lose no time 

for his advantage in the service of the Fleet I 

have been careful to obtain the letter, and I am 

glad to do him any service because he is a good 

boy and I am, 

Your ready servant 

Rob't Fairfax. 



stating that Lawrence aud John, sons of Lawrence Wash- 
ington of Sulsrave, were the emigrants to Virginia. They 
were probably grandsons. 3Ir. Chester says that Richard, 
one of the sons of Lawrence of Sulgrave, went to London to 
live as an apprentice to a clothworker. Richard, the writer 
of the letter, may have been his grandson. 

The wills of the emigrants John and Lawrence were 
made in Virginia, in 1675, and proved in 1677. John's 
second wife was then living. Lawrence bequeathed an 
estate in England to Mary a daughter by a former wife, and 
his lands and goods in Virginia, were divided between his 
second wife, and two children. John and Anna. 

1 Captain Fairfax rose to be Admiral of the Blue. 



62 THE FAIRFAXES 

WILLIAM FAIRFAX TO HIS MOTHER. 

Honored Madam : 

I take occasion to acquaint joii of my arrival 
in England and the receipt of your letter of the 
7**^ of April, by which you was pleased to remit 
£t> for which I return you my filial acknow- 
ledgment. You was pleased to intimate in 
yours that you adjudged to my advantage as 
well as Capt. Fairfax my continuing abroad 
with Sir John Jennings. 

I beg leave to acquaint you that I dont in the 
least question my Friends will think me in the 
right. When I received yours it was War, but 
now there being a cessation of arms, there are 
few Ships of War left abroad, consequently less 
vacancies happen, besides in a month's time, 
my Lord Forbes is designed to relieve Sr. Jno. 
Jennings, and so would only have drawn the 
time out a little longer. By a letter I lately 
saw from Sir G. Byng^ in my behalf, I dare 



' Sir Gr. Byng was born in 1663, and was an eminent offi- 
cer of the British navy. By his successes in the Mediter- 
ranean in 1718, Spain was compelled to accede to the 
quadruple alliance. 



OF AMEEICA. g3 

be confident he will serve me at sea, if not I 
will consult with my friends about some thoughts 
I have of going with the Duke of Hamilton to 
France, when he goes as Embassador. I have 
been assured of his interest. This is the only 
time that I will importune my friends, and if 
all the interest and endeavours fail, I have 
resolved to seek my own fortune in some remote 
[end] of the world, where I dont in the least 
doubt of living better than I have hitherto done 
at Sea. I assure you T could wish my Bro. 
Brian would never settle his thoughts or have 
the least tendency to it. I have often wished 
that I had been a Parson, as in m}' childish 
years I began to fancy it, for they in all parts 
live the only happy lives, and without incident 
to those misfortunes, the laity often sufier under. 
By the time you receive this I hope to be in 
London, but where, there, I am yet uncertain. 
It would be an extraordinary service to me if 
you could spare me £30 ; I confess it is with 
regrets I am forced to make such a demand, but 
I dare to venture to assure you that if nothing 
offers, as I ought to expect it will be the last 
I shall draw from, being resolved to throw my- 



64 THE PAIKFAXES 

self to Italy and France having this voyage 
learnt a little of the French tongue. Where I 
have so little title I begin to be weary of Eng- 
land. When I have finished what I have to 
do in London, I will take that so much wished 
for journey to Towlston to receive your bless- 
ing before I proceed further. 

Y'r: most dutiful son & servt, 
W. Fairfax. 

December 12, 1712. 



After returning from a voyage under his 
relative, Captain, afterwards Admiral Fairfax, 
he entered the army and served with Colonel 
Martin Bladen, the son of his relative Nathaniel 
Bladen. 



WILLIAM FAIRFAX TO HIS MOTHER. 

Hon'd Madam : 

I have embrac'd several opportunities of writ- 
ing to you since my being abroad, but amongst 
the number I only esteem those safe where the 
conveyance is not to be suspected. When 



OF AMERICA. 65 

friends and relatives meet in foreign parts their 
satisfaction is mutually exchanged, and I think 
the kind fortune of presenting Cousin A. Low- 
ther, has been very welcome for he is an officer 
well respected by his Captain and belov'd of his 
people. 

As he has promised to wait on you in his way 
to or from Swillington. I refer to him the particu- 
lars of my present circumstance. The last 
news from England mentioned S'r George Byng 
and Col. Bladen^ to be in great favour with 
the present ministry, insomuch that I intend 
with God's leave to make another trial of 
interest in England, as soon as I can possible. 
Pray present my love to brother and sisters, 
respects to all friends and relations. 
I am truly madam 

Y'r most dutiful son, and 

obliged servant, 
W. Fairfax. 

St. Helena, 

Auo;'t 16, 1716. 



1 Col. 3Iartiu Bladen was the son of Nathaniel Bladen, 
barrister, and edited Caesar's Commentaries. He became 
comptroller of the mint and one of the lords of trade. 
9 



QQ THE FAIRFAXES 

Dear Madam: 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter 
dated in July 1716, the last June, therein I 
was sorry to observe that you advised my con- 
tinuance at St. Helena, because you knew of no 
business I could immediately have at my ar- 
rival in England. But 1 must conclude that 
your reasons were altogether unknown with the 
knowledge of that Island. When I first received 
your's I had covenanted for my return, and as 
I in nowise doubt an employment more agree- 
able to my desires, so I hope in little time you 
will have the satisfaction to hear of my being 
settled. My Uncle Bladen sent your's enclosed 
in a very kind one of his own, and considering 
that he only of all those Gentlemen whom I 
have writ to did me the favour to return any, 
my obligation to him is the more encreased, 
especially when his concluded with a hearty 
wish of seeing me speedily at his house. 

I am now on the road to London, when I 
shall hope in three or four days to hear of your 
welfare, as well as brothers and sisters to whom 
pray give my kind love, and to all friends. 



OF AMERICA. 67 

My Uncle Bladen inform'd me of my Aunt 
Mary Fairfax's death, and of the kind legacy 
she left me. I received that intelligence as 
became a nephew, that condol'd the decease of 
my indulgent friend, and whatever suspicions 
mio'ht once have been surmis'd, I alwavs thought 
m3-self highly favour' d of my Aunt and I trust 
in God I shall never procure the disesteem of 
any relation. 

I am hon'd Madam 

Y'r very dutiful son 
and servant, 

W. Fairfax. 

Deal. Octob. 8. 1717. 



London. Jan'y 28, 1717-8. 
Honour'd Madam : 

My departure from you to-day recall'd to 
mind the time when I left you at Towlston, and 
the little outward show I had power only to 
demonstrate of that just- concern might be ex- 
pected. But I must beg you would do me the 
justice to believe, I have a heart fraught with 
as much sense of duty and gratitude, as the 
most open professor. 



68 THJ] FAIRFAXES 

It is the strength of the conception which 
overflows my heart, and denys my tongue its 
expected utterance, therefore hope for your 
favourable construction. 

My brother and I arriv'd in safety, and 
somewhat satisfied with our pleasant walk. 
My wife has since Saturday been very uneasy, 
because I sent her word, she might expect me 
then, which occasion'd her sending the messen- 
ger to enquire after nie. Govern : Rogers call'd 
this morning expecting to see me, but told my 
wife that he had the satisfaction of having the 
ship return'd, which he sent to Providence, 
where she was, and on shewing the proclama- 
tion, and being acquainted that Captain Rogers 
was intended Governour, they unanimously 
rejoiced, and have sent their assurances of their 
hearty intention to accept of the offer'd pardon, 
also to compliment Gov: Rogers, whose charac- 
ter is not unknown to them. This is what 
I have learnt at present, and when I have 
seen Gov : Rogers to-morrow shall send a more 
particular account. My, sister has got her 
cloaths, which had been stopt on the road by 
some Custom officer and examined on suspi- 



OF AMERICA. 69 

cion, and in a letter lately received from Towl- 
ston is desired to let you know that the mare 
Brian lost, is return'd home again. 

My sister came this evening to pay my wife 
a visit, and joins with me, wife, and bearer in 
all duty. Love & respect to you, Uncle, Aunt, 
and Cousins. 

I am hon'd Madam 
Y'r very dutiful son, 
W. Fairfax. 



Ship Delicia at the Nore, April 19, 1718. 
Honour'd Madam : 

On Thursday I accompanied the Governour 
on board in order to settle for the preparing 
voyage, which hitherto has made but slow pro- 
cedure, yet does not advance by quicker pace. 
I am pleased both with the Gentlemen, and 
accommodation on board, and believe I have 
procured so much of the Governour's favour, 
by my inclination to serve his aft'airs, that it 
must be own neglect, if at any time I shall 
want his assistance. 



70 THE FAIRFAXES 

Indeed I never went on a voyage, but with 
hope to return with the ship, but my case 
differs at this time, yet shall never despair, 
(whilst I have either vigour or willing mind to 
advance my fortune) of both revisiting my 
native land, and again receiving your blessing 
with more settled purposes. There are many 
instances to be found of persons that have ven- 
tur'd abroad, and in a few years have return'd 
bless'd with a happy fraught of their labours, 
to the rejoicing of friends and self-satisfaction. 
* * :i: * * ^^Q shall be in the Downs in two or 
three days, wherefore I should be glad to hear 
from you before we sail thence, and hope you 
have had some remedies to relax your late 
ailings. Tho' I expect to be a little while 
separated from my wife, yet I trust in God, she 
will not want any thing to comfort her sorrows. 
She is indeed a stranger in England, known to 
few but my friends, and as I know she deserves 
a better fate than to be left almost disconsolate, 
yet I hope shall hear of the good intentions of 
some friends, that have been ready to acknow- 
ledge their zeal to serve her. 

I do most sincerely, prompted by the mere 



OF A^tlERICA. 7X 

dictates of duty & inclination, wish you, Uncle, 
Aunt, and cousins all health and happiness, to 
whom severally I desire my remembrance and 
am Hon'd Madam. 

Y'r very dutiful son 
and afiection't servant 
W. Fairfax. 
Mr. Graves is very complaisant to me with 
whom when we take a nipperkin, never fail of 
drinking to my Uncle's good health, as we shall 
continue to do. 



MARY BLADEX TO MRS. AXX FAIRFAX. 

Satterdat, March ye 30. 
Madam : 

I think it necessary to let you know that 
there is a Clargy man courts your Daughter, 
and indeed in all appearance is a very deserv- 
ing young man, and is every way qualiffied for 
a Li\dng, tho he has none as yet, but Mr. 
Bladen has promised me that he will do all he 
can to get him one either here or in IreLand. 
We both like his charicter, yet will inquire a 
little more into his circumstances, if you ap- 



72 THE FAIRFAXES 

prove off the courtships going on, for my cosin 
Nancy I dare say will be obedient to all your 
commands. 

I am Madam 

Your humble servant, 

M. Bladen/ 

For Mrs. Fairfax at Tolston, 

near Tadcaster In Yorkshire. 



DOROTHY SHERARD TO HER NEPHEW. 

Good Neve : 

I return you my thanks for the favour of 
your letter. T thank God I am very well in 
helth tho I never ster out of my house all the 
winter. I am very sorry to heire my sister is 
in such a very ill steat of helth. 

Pray tell her I have seent down the same 
sort of drops for her to take as I youst to seend 
her, and some Red Pills, and ruberb. I have 
desir'd my Brother to seend em to her, for 
the ay are seent in a box to him and will be at 
Tadcaster, Saturday sennet for it is seent by 



1 Mary Bladen was the daughter of Col. Gibbs, who owned 
lands in Carolina. 



OF A]MERICA. 73 

York coach. I must now tell vou of the o-ood 
fortaine of my son Sherard, who by the deth 
of the leat Earle of Harborough, hee hes now 
that tittle, but the leat L'd hes bein soe good 
to him as to give him ye part of the Estate w ch 
was his great Granfathers and ye other part of 
the Esteate is cheefly givern to the Duches of 
Rutland wch was his sister, and some part to 
my Lady Irwin's and her suns, but my sun 
having such a number of chilldren, it will 
require his good manneigment as much as ever 
to proveide for em in such a high stations. 

I am glad I can tell you, all y'r relations o 
this side very well for most of em hes beein to 
see me. '•='• '■•'• =•"= I hartilj^ wish 3 ou and my 
sister, and nece a [torn] and meuny happy new 
yeirs, and I and my daughter [torn] humble ser- 
veis to you all and to my cousen Fairfaxes when 
you see them. I am 

Yr: affect. Ante & servt 

D. Sherard.^ 

1 Dorothy, daugliter of Heniy Lord Fairflix, first married 
R. Stapleton. After his death she became the wife of 
Beanet Sherard, and her son became Earl of Harboroujrh. 
She died iu 1744. 

10 



74 THE FAIRFAXES 

The ship Delicia arrived at Nassau, New 
Providence, in July, 1718, and Woodes Kogers, 
distinguished for a three years' voyage around 
the world, who had been sent out on petition 
of the Liverpool merchants to break up the 
nest of pirates there, immediately entered upon 
his duties as governor. William Fairfax was 
appointed judge of the Admiralty, and acted 
as president of the court, which in December 
tried, found guilty, and hung a number of 
desperadoes. 

Owing to the sickliness of the climate, in 
1725 he moved to New England, where his wife, 
the daughter of Major Walker of Nassau, died 
in 1731. 

HON. WM. FAIRFAX TO HIS MOTHER. 

Custom House, Salem ^ 
IN New England, 24 May, 1731. 

Ever honoured Madam : 

I have once again the great pleasure to write 
by Col'o Gale who in his way for England has 
paid me a visit, well knowing that the opportu- 
nity would be most agreeable. His long and 



1 In 1734 he left Salem fov Vire;inia. See Felt's Salem. 



OF AMERICA. 75 

continued acquaintance with my affairs, and 
my now present circumstances will make it 
unnecessary to repeat the former account I have 
given you of the decease of my dear Dame on 
the IS**" of January last, and her having left 
me four small children. CoP Gale has indeed 
kindly offered to take the care of safe conduct- 
ing my eldest son George, upwards of seven 
years old, but I judged it too forward to send 
him before I had yours or some one of his 
Uncles' or Aunts' invitation, altho' I have no 
reason to doubt any of their indulgences to poor 
West India boy * * * * * I and mine are with 
all duty, love and respect humble petitioners 
that you will please to continue your prayers 
to God for a blessing on our endeavours to live 
happily here and hereafter, I am most dutiful 
mother. 

Your ever dutiful son and servant 

W. Fairfax. 



In 1750 Mr. Fairfax visited England, where 
his son William Henry was probably at the 
Blue Coat school of Beverley in Yorkshire. 



76 THE FAIRFAXES 

HON. WM. FAIRFAX, TO A BROTHER. 

Beverley, 28tli Sepf. 1750. 
Sir: 

I have had the pleasure to find Col. Beverley, 
his family, and my son William Henry in good 
health. 

On discoursing with Mr. Clarke the worthy 
school master, I find that several of the books 
under Wm. Appleyard's care will be useful to 
my son, therefore take the freedom to entreat 
your favor to receive and forward the books to 
be sent you. If there be any books that please 
and worth your acceptance I shall be glad if you 
will take them. Mrs. Beverley and family 
send their best compliments and I hope you 
will favor me with your good correspondence, 
while I am in London which will be always 
agreeable to 

Yr very affect, brother, &c. 

W. Fairfax. 



Thomas, the sixth Lord Fairfax, whose 
mother was a daughter of Lord Culpepper, 
owned a vast estate in the northern neck of 



OF AMERICA. 77 

Virginia; and discovering neglect upon the part 
of his mother's agent, he dismissed him, and, as 
has been stated, appointed his cousin. Colonel 
William Fairfax. 

Colonel Fairfax upon his first removal from 
New England to Virginia lived in Westmoreland, 
but afterwards moved to the banks of the 
Potomac, and built Belvoir, a pleasant residence, 
in sight of what is now called Mt. Vernon. 

Lord Fairfax first visited Virginia in 1736, 
and passed a year with his cousin. A graduate 
of Oxford, and possessed of literary taste, partly 
owing to disappointed affection he sought the 
Virginia wilderness, and shunned the convention- 
alities of society. In the year 1746 he made 
Virginia his permanent residence, and the letter 
from Leeds Castle to his cousin George, the son of 
Colonel William Fairfax, was probably written 
just before his final departure from England. 

THOS. LORD FAIRFAX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Leeds Castle, April 6. 
Dear George: 

I here send you by Captain Cooling of the 

Elizabeth, two dogs and one bitch of S"^ Edward 

Filmores hounds which he promised you. I 



78 THE FAIRFAXES 

desire you will be very careful of them and get 
into the breed; if you have any other good 
hounds they will make a good cross and mend 
the breeds. If there is any charge attending 
them I have wrote to your father to satisfy 
Captain Cooling. I do not yet hear of any 
convoy appointed for Virginia, but I hope soon 
to know of one being named that I may soon 
have the pleasure of seeing my friends in the 
Northern Neck. I hope likewise soon of having 
the pleasure of acquainting you of something 
to your advantage. The Major desires his com- 
pliments and reminds you of his turkeys. I 
have nothing more to add at present but that 
I remain 

Yours 

Fairfax. 



LORD FAIRFAX TO UEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Frederick, October 28, 1751. 
Sir: 

I have promised Mr. John West to lend him 
one hundred pounds sterling w'ch you may pay 
him and take his bond for. There are two 
steers and one cow of mine at Potter's, if they 



OF AMERICA. 79 

will be of any service to you, you may send 
for them before Potter leaves your parts. 

My service attends all the good family, as 
also Mr. Martins. I remain 

Yours 

Fairfax. 



LORD FAIRFAX TO HOX. WM. FAIRFAX. 

Sir : 

Yours I received from Williamsburg by which 
I was glad to hear of all the good Family's 
health. We have no news in this part of the 
world. We have had hitherto very fine weather, 
but now it begins to be very cold, and likely to 
set in for wet weather. Two or three days ago 
we had a small snow but it soon melted. Please 
to let Mr. Lewis ^ have his own and any of his 
neighbours deeds out of the office. His note is 
as good as cash as there is an account between 



1 John Lewis of Ireland was the first settler of Augusta 
county, and founder of the town of Staunton. He died in 
1762, aged eighty-four. He left five sons: Thomas, a man 
of learning and integrity, and a member of the convention of 
1776; Samuel; General Andrew; William, an ofiicer in the 
army of the revolution; and Colonel Charles. 

Thomas is probably the one alluded to in the note. 



go THE FAIRFAXES 

him and me, which you may at any time send 
up to me. My service attends Col. George, 
Mrs. Fairfax and all friends. I remain 

Dear cousin 
Yours 

Fairfax. 



GEORGE W. FAIRFAX TO GOVERNOR DINWIDDIE, 
OF VIRGINIA. 

Winchester, Sept'r 4i'', 1755. 
Hon^^'' Sir: 

This instant Mr. Dennis McCarty ^ came here 
and gave me the agreeable news of Col. Dun- 
bar's^ being ordered back, and that my friend 
Col. Washington is to have command of the 
forces to be raised by this Colony, which un- 
doubtedly is a great trust, but I dare say he will 
discharge it with honour. I could wish our good 
Countrymen were not so tenacious of their liber- 



' Early in the eigliteenth century, Daniel MeCarty, the 
ancestor of Dennis came to Westmoreland county, Va., 
and was speaker of the house of burgesses in 1715. Den- 
nis was appointed a captain by Washington. Mr. McCarty 
and family were at Mrs. Washington's request present at 
her husband's funeral. 

-Dunbar was colonel of the 48"' regiment British Regu- 
lars, and was the senior officer after Braddock's defeat and 
death at Fort Duquesne, the previous July. 



OF AMERICA. 81 

ties at this time, and put the Soldiery during 
the expedition under martial law, and then I am 
sure he would do it with great satisfaction, and 
ens-asre others to enter into the service. I can't 
help expressing my intention, and great desire 
of serving my Country at this juncture, if you 
should be at a loss for officers, not sembling in 
the least to serve under my valuable friend. 
Had I the least reason to expect this when I 
last saw him, I should have mentioned it and 
wrote to your Honour, but I hope I am not too 
late in mj- application, and must beg the favour 
of you to postpone any office you may incline 
to favour me with till I consult my good and 
indulgent Parent, and my worthy Patron L'd 
Fairfax who I am in hopes will spare me from 
his office. Wives, good Sir, are not to be con- 
sulted upon these occasions, but I make no doubt 
but mine would consent upon so laudable a call.^ 
I tarried but one day at home, before I set 
off for this County in which I have been en- 
deavouring ever since to get men for the com- 
panies of rangers and I am sorry to say with 



1 His wife was Sarah, the daughter of Wilson Cary- 
11 



82 THE FAIRFAXES 

but little success, but what we have, being 
about — I think are good, expert, active 
woodsmen such as I do intend to and can trust 
myself with, and do propose to march them on 
next Saturday if possible, and to leave Capt. 
Cocke to bring up the remainder of his rangers, 
and some of his militia troops which his Lord- 
ship and we think most expeditious and neces- 
sary for the defence of the back inhabitants 
until further orders. For at our general muster, 
we drafted pursuant to the Act made for that 
purpose 30 young men, out of which we could 
not get one to enlist, or pay the Ten pounds. 
Upon which we committed the whole to prison, 
where I set a good and efficient guard every 
night, and yesterday about twelve oClock the 
prisoners artfully or by some assistance put the 
lock back, and took an opportunity of rushing 
out in a body with clubs, and through the 
guard, and have all made their escape, notwith- 
standing we sent several horsemen after them, 
and was kindly assisted by Capt. Stuart's horse. 
Thus good Sir I have been perplexed, and 
am at a loss what to do indeed with those that 
are enlisted in case they should misbehave. I 



OF AMERICA. 83 

should have wrote by Mr. McCarty but he 
would not tarry and now am hurried to take this 
opportunity. Please to present my kind com- 
pliments to your good Lady and family, and be 
assured that I am with the greatest esteem 
Your honour s most ob't humble servant 

Geo. Wm. Fairfax. 



LORD FAIRFAX TO GEORGE W. FAIRFAX. 

Thursday Evening. 

Dear George : 

I was yesterday down at Mr. West's on my 
way to Belvoir, but was called back by a false 
alarm of old Sharpe's^ of which I wrote an 
account to Mr. Carlyle ; ' tho the first part, 
namely the twenty men being either killed or 
taken is true. I propose setting ofi" once more 
by the way of Prince W". as we now imagine 
the Indians are for the present gone back. I 
have no objection to what you mention in your 
letter if you think it will any ways to your 
advantage. I have nothing farther to add till I 



1 Grovernor Sharpe of Maryland was very unpopular with 
the Virginians. 

- Mr. Carlvle married the sister of Greortre Fairfax. 



84 THE FAIRFAXES 

shall have the pleasure of seeing you. My service 
attends Mrs. Fairfax and the rest of the family. 

I remain Yours 

Fairfax. 



LORD FAIRFAX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

May 5, 1756. 
Dear George : 

I wrote to you some time ago about a piece 

of land surveyed for Ben Smith on Opeckon, 

who married Captain Chester's ^ daughter, who 

has been with me, and has given her consent 

that the deed should come out in the name of 

Mr. John Hogg.^ The said Smith has run away 

to Carolina, and she for the benefit of her 



1 Capt. Chester was an early settler in the valley of the 
Shenandoah. Fothergill, a quaker preacher, brother of the 
distinguished English physician, says in his journal, under 
date of 9"' mo. 13"'. 1736: 

" We got over Shenandoah river to one Chester's who 
was very courteous to us, his poor circumstances considered." 

~ The Hoge family came to Frederick county in 1738. 
George Hoge was one of the first justices of the court. 
John Hoge, perhaps son of George, graduated at Princeton, 
in 1748. William, a relative of George, was a native of 
Paisley, Scotland, and after a brief residence in the middle 
states, settled near Winchester. Moses, one of his sons, 
became a professor of theology. 



OF AMERICA. 85 

children has agreed with the said Hog and the 
executors of Capt. Chester to exchange said 
land for another of Chester's whereon she has 
always lived. If it is agreeable to the practice 
of the ofiice, I am willing to consent to it, and 
will take care that the children have justice 
done them by Chester's executors. 

I remain Yours 

Fairfax. 



H. CLAPHAM TO HON. WILLIAM FAIRFAX. 

Hull. 1*^' March, 1757. 

It's now above a year, since we have had any 
letters from Virginia, two of our ships, viz 
Capt. Cheeseman and Capt. Lewis, by both of 
whom we wrote, being taken by French priva- 
teers, upon our own Coasts. This comes by Capt. 
Cheeseman who ransomed his ship and cargo 
for £1000 the cargo belonging to Mr. Welfil. 

As to affairs here we are in the utmost con- 
fusion, the Ministry being entirely changed, 
and Binof who behaved so ill in the Mediter- 
ranean, I believe if one may credit the papers 
was to be shot on board the Royal Anne at 



86 THE FAIRFAXES 

Spithead on yesterday/ The greatest prepara- 
tions for war are making that was ever known 
in the memory of man, the whole Nation being 
united to humble the French, and want only 
good commanders that will fight. I am with 
mine and my wife's best respects to yourself, 
family, and all friends in Virginia, 
Yr: affect, brother 

and humble Serv't 

H. Clapham. 



DOROTHY CLAPHAM TO HER BROTHER HON. WM. 
FAIRFAX. 

Dear Brother : 

I have been troubled very much by not 
hearing from you so long, and we have sent you 
many letters, and as Captain Cheesman told 
Mr. Clapham "- he had a packet for us, but when 
he found he should be taken he threw all over 
into the sea. I got a letter lately from my 
poor Willy who writes from London. The last 



' Jolin Byng, son of Viscount Torrington, was tried for 
alleged cowardice and unjustly executed. He was shot at 
Portsmouth, and met his sad fate like a man and Christian. 

- H. Clapham was an officer of the customs in England, and 
Dorothy, his wife, was sister of William Fairfax of Belvoir, Va. 



OF AMERICA. 87 

time I saw him was last year at York. He is 
tall and good-like, God bless him and send him 
grace. We drunk tea together with my brother 
for I had not gone to York, but word was sent 
to us that he was very ill so stayed till he was 
better and so went to Newton, and dined one day 
there, and lay two nights at William Appleyards, 
and two at the More House * * * * went to 
see the Hall, it made my heart ache to see so 
ruined a place. I am dear brother 

Your loving sister & humble servant 

Dorothy Clapham. 



JOHN HOGE, PRISONER OF WAR, COGNAC, FRANCE, 
TO LORD FAIRFAX. 

Cognac, March 27, 1767. 
Lord Thomas Fairfax : 
Sir: 
I make bold to write you a few lines to let 
you know of my being a prisoner in old France, 
and should be glad if you would forward it to 
my father, as I am well assured he dont think 
of my being in the land of the living, and the 
condition I am now in, makes me rely upon 
[torn] some relief, being in great want of the 



88 THE FAIRFAXES 

necessary [torn] having the second shirt or 
jacket to put to my [torn] of all I had, when I 
was taken by the Indians and [torn] Royal, and 
from there was sent to this prison, [torn] remain 
having no likelihood or hopes of being [torn] I 
understand there is a dispute between both 
[torn] Prisoners that were taken before the war 
was dec [torn] ever relief my father is pleased 
to send nie by the way of Lond [torn] corre- 
spondence in England, and that your Lordship 
[torn] me to them, to befriend me in the way 
of getting [torn] in his majesty's service, which 
if your Lordship [torn] I shall always think 
myself highly obligated to your Honour for doing 
so charitable an act. So no more at present 
but remain 

Your H'ble servant and well wisher 

John Hoge. 



JOHN HOGE, PRISONER OF WAR, TO HIS FATHER. 
Cognac, March tlie 27'!', 1757. 
Honoured Father : 

I take this opportunity of letting you know 
that I am well in health at present, thanks be 
to God for it, and I hope you enjoy the like 



OF AMERICA. 89 

blessing, although I have had my share of sick- 
ness, and but just coming to myself, it gives me 
a great deal of concern to think that I have the 
misfortune to be at so great a distance from 
you, but I hope when these few lines reach your 
hands it will revive your spirits, as I think you 
are doubtful whether I was dead or alive, and 
the way that I am now in. And knowing you 
always to be a tender and careful Father over 
me, a few lines with some relief from your hands 
would be a great comfort to me under my con- 
finement, having but few clothes to put to my 
back, and if you would apply to Lord Thomas 
Fairfax he would put you in a way of sending 
it to me. Dear Father I should be glad you 
would send me an account how much you 
received of m}' wages, and what my team of 
-horses was valued at, and whether you got my 
wagon that I left at Belhaven,^ as I expect to 



1 Alexandria was frequently called Bell Haven. On 
February 20, 1755, General Braddock arrived at Alexandria, 
with two regiments from Ireland commanded by Col. Dunbar 
and Sir Peter Halket Braddock left the town on May 20th 
and marched by way of Winchester to the fotal battle-field 
at Fort Duquesne. John Hoge appears to have been attached 
to the expedition, in some capacity. 
12 



90 THE FAIRFAXES 

receive the remainder of my wages when I am 
released and arrive in England, of which I shall 
stand in need of to get my passage home, in 
which I hope to be a comfort to you after so 
long absence, and as it is troublesome times, get 
his Lordship to write to his friend, to get me a 
protection to keep me clear of a man of war. So 
no more at present but desires to be remembered 
to my brothers and sisters, uncles, and aunts and 
all enquiring friends, whilst I remain 
Your ever loving and 

dutiful son till death 

John Hoge. 
P. S. It gives me a deal of satisfaction to 
let you know that there is a gentleman here 
that has been a great friend to me, and all my 
fellow prisoners, for which we have great rea- 
son to pray for his health and welfare, this* 
gentleman's name is Anthony Le Measurer. 



On August 30, 1757, William Fairfax died 
lamented for his many sterling qualities. Not 
only had he been president of the council of 
Virginia, but collector of the customs for the 
South Potomac. 



OF AMERICA. 91 

LITTLETON EYRE TO GEORGE W. FAIRFAX. 

Northampton, Sept'r 22, 1757. 
Sir: 

Since writing on the 20'^ inst, by our papers 

I see 3'oiir Father is dead. His death occasions 

a vacancy in the Customs, probably you will 

endeavour for that place as I suppose it's better 

than your present one. If you will use your 

interest for your place on our Shore in my 

behalf so as to procure it for me or my son I 

will give you a hundred pounds. Pray let me 

know your sentiments on this ajftair and whether 

it will be in time to conclude on it at the 

October Court, and on what day, or if it is 

necessary to see you sooner I will meet you at 

any place you shall appoint 

I am Sir, Your h'ble serv't 

Littleton Etre. 



LORD FAIRFAX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Dear George : 

I have wrote a very pressing letter to my 
brother ^ to use his utmost endeavours to obtain 



1 Robert, tlie only brother aud successor to the title. 



92 THE FAIRFAXES 

for you the Collectorship of the South Potomack. 
I have acquainted him with the death of your 
father, and the great loss it must be to the 
whole family, which Mr. Martin ^ and myself 
heartily join in our sincerest condolence. 

I considered as it would be so many days 
before the fleet sailed and there would be so 
many letters of solicitations that it would be 
impossible to keep it secret at home and there- 
fore the best way was to own the whole truth. 

I shall not fail writing on you from Prince 
W™ Court on Wednesday the 23* of this instant, 
and Mr. Martin designs likewise to attend you, 
which is about the time Mr. Carlyle mentions. 
Pray make our compliments to Mrs. Fairfax 
and the rest of the good family on this melan- 
choly occasion and you will oblige 

Dear George Yours 

Fairfax. 



^ Thomas Brian Martin was the nephew of the Lord, being 
a son of his sister Frances, and succeeded Greo. W. Fairfax, 
as the Lord's land agent. 



OF A3IERICA. 93 

In November, Mr. George W. Fairfax arrived 
in London to solicit from Lord Granville the 
office that had been held by his father. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO LORD FAIRFAX. 

London', Dec'r 6'", 1757. 
Sir: 

In my last from Falmouth, I acquainted you 
of my arrival here on the 26^^ of last month, 
and the next day I waited on our worthy friend 
Mr. Athawes, who told me the vacant place 
was not then disposed of, and that the Commis- 
sioner of the Customs had recommended me to 
the Treasury, whereupon I went and had your 
kind letter delivered to the Duke of Newcastle, 
and then waited on Lord Granvile who kindly 
received me, and promised to do me any service 
in his power, and thus I rested till Mr. Fairfax 
came to town who waited on his Grace, and I 
hope has so far succeeded that I shall be ap- 
pointed to that small place, which by some 
gentleman has been represented to be worth 5 
or 6 hundred pounds per annum, and I believe 
has occasioned this delay. 



94 THE FAIRFAXES 

The Parliament met the 1"*, and unanimously 
agreed in a very loyal and dutiful address, in 
which they promise to aid the brave and victo- 
rious King of Prussia. The late second expedi- 
tion against Rocford has unhappily miscarried, 
by I don't know whose neglect. But Sir John 
Mordaunt it seems is in custody, and to be tried 
by a court martial very soon, and it's whispered 
that Sir Edward Hawke will also be tried when 
he returns. Thus your Lordship may see how 
the Ministry have been imployed, and I heartily 
wish their orders may be better executed next 
campaign. 

A Bill has passed already to prevent Ihe 
exportation, and distillers using corn, etc., for 
one year occasioned by the great scarcity of it 
in the kingdom, whereby it is thought there 
will be sufficient to supply the people till next 
harvest, which if nothing particular happens 
will exceed any, as there never was so much 
put into the ground, as at the last sowing. 

The execution of the Militia Law has occa- 
sioned great riots, and disturbances in many 
Counties, and a motion has been made in the 
House to bring in a Bill to amend it, which I 



OF AMERICA. 95 

believe will be the principal business done before 
the holidays, which I shall spend in Kent, and 
then visit our relations and friends in Yorkshire. 
A convoy is appointed for our fleet in March, 
so that I hope I shall be so fortunate as to find 
you and friends well in April. I am my Lord 
Your Lordship's dutiful and 

most obliged humble servant 

Go. Wm. Fairfax. 



GEORGE W. FAIRFAX TO HIS WIFE. 

London, Dec 12"' 1757. 
Dear Sally: 

I am sorry to say I have not yet succeeded 

and that it is uncertain whether I shall. But 

be it as it may, I find it was necessary to be 

here, and I should not have excused myself if 

I had not. Mr. Fairfax went down to Leeds 

Castle yesterday and left me to push my own 

way, and then to follow to spend my Christmas 

and to prepare for his imbarking with me in 

March. Therefore I beseech you'll employ old 

Tom, or get some person to put the garden in 

good order, and call upon Mr. Carlyle for his 



96 THE FAIRFAXES 

assistance in getting other necessary things 
done about the house in order to receive so fine 
a gentleman.^ And I must further recommend, 
and desire that you'll endeavour to provide the 
best provision for his nice stomach, altho: I 
suppose he will spend chief of his time with his 
brother. 

However to make his and other company 
more agreeable I shall endeavour to engage a 
butler to go over with me at least for one year. 

My Dear, I have often wished for your com- 
pany to enjoy the amusements of this Metropo- 
lis, for I can with truth say, they are not much 
so to me in my present situation and that I now 
and then go to a play only to kill time. But I 
please myself with my country visits imagining 
the time there will pass more agreeable. Per- 
mit me Sally to advise a steady and constant 
application to those things directed for your 



1 Robert, brother of Thomas Lord Fairfax, made the pro- 
posed visit. Washington, in one of his diaries, says : " Mr. 
Bryan Fairfax, Mr. Grayson, and Phil. Alexander, came home 
by sunrise. Hunted and catched a fox with these, Lord 
Fairfax, his brother, and Colonel Fairfax — all of whom, 
with Mr Fairfax and Mr Wilson of England, dined here." 



OF AMERICA. 97 

welfare, which may aflbrd me the greatest satis- 
faction upon my arrival. 

Your affect, and loving husband 

Go. Wm. Fairfax. 



GEORGE LEE TO EDMUND ATHAWES, LONDON. 

Sir: 

K Col. Fairfax should be sailed for Virginia 
when this reaches you, be pleased to open the 
letter directed for him, negotiate the Bills of 
Exchange inclosed for his use and oblige 
Yr most obed't h'ble serv't 

George Lee.^ 

Virg'a Westmoreland, 2"^ January, 1758. 



1 Lawrence Washington died at Mt. Vernon in 1752, and 

his widow, the sister of George Fairfax, married George Lee. 
Colonel George Washington, in a letter to Governor L)in- 
widdie on Aug. 14, 1756, says : 

" As a general meeting of the persons concerned in the 
estate of my deceased brother is appointed to be held at 
Alexandria, about the middle of September, for making a 
final settlement of all his affairs, and as I am very deeply 
interested not only as an executor and heir of part of his 
estate, but also in a very important dispute subsisting 
between Colonel Lee who married the widow, and my brothers 
and self concerning a devise in the will * * * I hope 
your Honor will readily -consent to my attending this meet- 
ing." George Lee was the uncle of Arthur and Richard 
Henry Lee, the revolutionary patriots. 
13 



98 THE FAIRFAXES 

LETTERS OF LORD FAIRFAX TO GEORGE W. FAIRFAX. 

Dear George : 

I received yours by Mr Andrews and am 
sorry to find you decline standing candidate for 
your County. I do propose being down at 
Prince William election, and so take either 
yours and London on my way up into Frederick. 
Our writ did not get to the sheriff's hands till 
this day by which means our election will be 
on Monday the twenty fourth of this month, 
and Hampshire will for the same reason be 
some days after it. I fear Coll. Washington 
will be very hard pushed.^ My service attends 
Mrs Fairfax and all friends. Mr Martin is 
gone to Winchester, and I propose going thither 
to morrow. I remain 

Your humble servant & kinsman 

Fairfax. 

July 5':^ 1758. 



' He was hard pushed. There were three candidates, but 
he was successful. Sparks says the election cost Washington 
£39 6s., and among the items of the bill were a hogshead 
and a barrel of punch, thirty-five gallons of wine, forty-three 
gallons of strong beer, cider, and dinner for his friends. 



OF AMERICA. 99 

Dear George : 

Mr. Neil ^ has been with me and complains 
that Joseph Carter takes in all the water, which 
very much hurts his plantation. He desires if 
he have thirty or forty acres which I really 
think is very reasonable. He likewise desires 
his brother's and his deed may be made separate. 

I should be likewise glad if some Golden 
Pipen, Nonparel, Aromatick and Medlar Apple 
grafts by him, which he will take care to convey 
to me. My service attends Mrs. Fairfax and 
all friends. I remain Yours 

Fairfax. 



Sept'r 10>i' 1758. 
Dear George : 

Mr. Stephens in his way to the office called 

here and I take the opportunity of sending by 

him a letter left here for you, as also Mr 



1 Mr. Neill was an Irish Quaker settled on the Opequan, 
about five miles from Winchester, and was sherifi" of Frede- 
rick county. 

A descendant of his, Lt. Lewis Neill, a graduate of West 
Point, distinguished himself in the Mexican war, and died at 
Fort Croghan, Texas. 



100 THE FAIRFAXES 

Lemons plot. When you see Mr Carlyle pray 
desire him to set aside a hogshead of rum and 
barrel of sugar which I shall soon send my 
wagon for. I believe I shall be down in your 
parts before you set out for Williamsburgh. 
Mr Baylis has very much disappointed us, in 
not sending up a plan of Winchester, which has 
prevented my sending down a petition for the 
addition to Winchester, which as Mr Wood is 
doing may occasion some confusion. Hollings- 
worth ^ is likewise desirous of doing the same 
thing, as also Mr Cocken. My service attends 
the families at Belvoir and Alexandria. I 
remain 

Your humble servant and kinsman 

Fairfax. 



The following letter was taken from the 
Fairfax manuscripts in 1860, and given by a 



' Fothergill, the Quaker preacher, and brother of the cele- 
brated physician, in 1736 visited " Abraham Hollingsworth, 
a Friend near Opeckon." 

Valentine Hollingsworth, a Friend, settled in New Castle 
county, Del., about 1682. His son Henry moved to Elkton, 
Md. and he had a number of sons who became heads of 
families in Virginia, Maryland. Delaware and Pennsylvania. 



OF AMERICA. 101 

gentleman, who had married the granddaughter 
of Bryan, Lord Fairfax, to the late Hon. Edward 
Everett.^ 

It was addressed to Miss Mary Gary by Col. 
George Washington, while in camp near the 
Pennsylvania line, thirty miles from Fort Cum- 
berland, awaiting the slow movements of Gene- 
ral Forbes. 

He had been sincerely attached to her, and 
always maintained friendly relations, but was 
prevented from marrying her by the unwilling- 
ness of her father. Bishop Meade, in his History 
of Old Churches in Virginia prints a document of 
the Ambler family, an extract from which throws 
some light on this early love of Washington. 
It says : 

" The eldest sister of Miss Mary Cary had 
married George William Fairfax, at whose house 
she was on a visit, when she captivated a 
young man who paid her his addresses. His 
affection, however, was not returned, and the 
offer of his hand was rejected by Miss Cary. 



' Mr. Everett incorporated it in his article oa Washington 
in the New American Cyclopedia and supposed it was ad- 
dressed to the widow, Martha Custis. 



102 THE FAIRFAXES 

This young man was afterward known to the 
world as General George Washington, the first 
President of the United States of America. 

" Young Washington asked permission of old 
Mr. Gary to address his daughter before he 
ventured to speak to herself. The reply of the 
old gentleman was, 'If that is your business here. 
Sir, I wish you to leave the house, for my 
daughter has been accustomed to ride in her 
own coach." 

"It has subsequently been said that this 
answer of Mr. Gary to the stripling Washington, 
produced the independence of the United States, 
and laid the foundation of the future fame of 
the first of braves and the best of men — our 
immortal Washington; as it was more than 
probable that, had he obtained possession of the 
large fortune which it was known Miss Gary 
would carry to the altar with her, he would 
have passed the remainder of his life in inglo- 
rious ease. 

"It was an anecdote of the day that this 
lady, many years after she had been the wife 
of Edward Ambler, happened to be in Williams- 
burg when General Washington passed through 



OF AMERICA. 103 

that city at the head of the American army, 
crowned with never fading laurels, and adored 
by his countrymen. Having distinguished her 
among the crowd, his sword waved toward her 
a military salute, whereupon she is said to have 
fainted. But this wants confirmation, for her 
whole life tended to show that she never for a 
moment regretted the choice she had made. 
It may be added as a curious fact that the lady 
General Washington afterward married resem- 
bled Miss Cary as much as one twin-sister ever 
did another." 



COL. GEO. WASHINGTON TO MISS MARY CARY. 
Camp at Rays Town, 25'i' Sept'r, 1758. 
Dear Madam: 

Do we still misunderstand the true meanins; 
of each other s Letters ? I think it must appear 
so, tho' I would feign hope the contrary as I 

cannot speak plainer without but I'll say 

no more and leave you to guess the rest. 

I am now furnished with News of a very 
interesting nature, I know it will affect you, but 
as you must hear it from others! will state it 



104 THE FAIRFAXES 

myself. The 12th past, then Major Grant with 
a chosen Detachment of 800 men march'd from 
our advanced post at Loyal Hanna against 
Fort Du-quesne. 

On the night of the 13"* he arrivd at that 
place or rather upon a Hill near to it ; from 
whence went a party and viewd the Works, 
made what observations they could, and burnt 
a Logd house not far from the Walls. Egg'd 
on rather than satisfied by this success, Major 
Grant must needs insult the Enemjr next morn- 
ing by beating the Reveille in different places 
in view, this caus'd a great body of men to 
Sallie from the Fort, and an obstinate engage- 
ment to ensue, which was maintained on our 
Side with the utmost efforts that bravery could 
yield, till being overpower'd and quite sur- 
rounded they were obliged to Retreat with the 
loss of 22 officers killed, and 278 men besides 
wounded. 

This is a heavy blow to our Affairs here, and 
a sad stroke upon my Regiment, that has lost 
out of 8 officers, and 168 that was in the Action, 
6 of the former killd, and a 7th wounded. 
Among the Slain was our dear Major Lewis 5 



OF AMERICA. 106 

this Gentleman as the other officers also did, 
bravely fought while they had life, tho' wounded 
in different places. Your old acquaintance 
Capt'n Bullet, who is the only officer of mine 
that came of untouched has acquired immortal 
honour in this engagement by his gallant be- 
haviour, and long continuance in the field of 
Action. It might be thought vanity in me to 
praise the behaviour of my own People were 1 
to deviate from the report of common Fame, — 
but when you consider the loss they have sus- 
taind, and learn that every mouth • resounds 
their praises, you will believe me Impartial. 

What was the great end proposed by this 
attempt or what will be the want of its failure, 
I cant take upon me to determine ; it appears 
however (from the best Accts) that the Enemy 
lost more men then we did in the engagement. 
Thus it is the Lives of the brave are often dis- 
posed of— but who is there that does not rather 
Envy than regret a Death that gives birth to 
Honour and Glorious memory. 

I am extremely glad to find that Mr Fairfax ^ 

1 Wm. Henry Fairfax, brother of Geo. W. and Bryan 
Fairfax, was an ensign of the 28th British regulars. The 
14 



106 THE FAIRFAXES 

has escap'd the Dangers of the Siege at Louis- 
bourg. Already have we experienced greater 
Losses than our Army sustaind at that place, 
and have gain'd not one obvious Advantage. 
So miserably has this Expedition been managd 
that I expect after a month's further Tryal, and 
the loss of many more men by the Sword, Cold 
and perhaps Famine, we shall give the expedi- 
tion over as perhaps impracticable this season, 
and retire to the inhabitants, condemnd by 
the World and derided by our Friends. 

I shoud think our time more agreeable spent 
believe me, in playing a part in Cato, with the 
comjDany you mention, and myself doubly happy 
in being the Juba to such a Marcia as you 
must make.^ 

Your agreeable Letter containd these words 
" My Sisters and Nancy Gist who neither of 
them expect to be here soon after our return 



next year he was fatally wounded at the storming of Quebec. 
Archdeacon Burnaby says that General Wolfe saw him 
as the army landed, seated near the bank of the river, and 
that touching him on the shoulder, said : " Youtuj man, when 
we come to action remember your iiame." 

1 Addison's tragedy of Cato must have been full of in- 
terest to the young military officer in love with a fair maiden, 



OF AMERICA. 107 

from Town, desire you to accept their best 
complimts &c." 

Pray are these Ladies upon a Matrimonial 



and yet debarred from being her husband, because her father 
looked upon him, as without fortune, and without fame. 

Many passages in the play are exceedingly apposite to 
one in his situation, but only a few can be given: 

Act /, Scene bth. 

Juha. O Marcia, let me hope thy kind concerns • 

And gentle wishes follow me to battle. 

Marcia. My prayers and wishes always shall attend 

The friends of Rome, the glorious cause of virtue, 
And men approv'd of the gods and Cato. 

Juba. Thou virtuous maid : I'll hasten to my troops 
******* 
And in the shock of charging hosts, remember 
What glorious deeds, should grace the man, who hopes 
For Marcia's love. 

Act IV, Scene 1st. 
Marcia. Juba to all the bravery of a hero, 

Adds softest love, and more than female sweetness ; 

Juba might make the proudest of our sex. 

Any of woman kind, but Marcia happy. 
Lucia. And why not Marcia ? * * * 
Marcia. While Cato lives, his daughter has no right 

To love or hate but as his choice directs. 

Act IV, Scene Sd. 
Marcia. Why do I think on what he was ! He's dead I 

He's dead, and never knew how much I loved him. 



108 THE FAIRFAXES 

Scheme ? Is Miss Fairfax ^ to be transformed 
into that charming Domestick — a Martin, and 
Miss Gary ^ to a Fa-re. What does Miss Gist 
turn to — A Cocke ^ that cant be, we have him 
here. 

One thing more and then have done. You 
ask if I am not tird at the length of your letter ? 
Nq Madam I am not, nor never can be while the 
Lines are an Inch assunder to bring you in haste 
to the end of the Paper, you may be tird of mine 
by this. Adieu dear Madam, you will possibly 
hear something of me, or from me before we 



Jvha. Where am I ? do I live ! or am indeed 

What Marcia thinks ! all is Elysium around me. 
Marcia. Ye dear remains of the most loved of men ! 
Nor modesty, nor virtue here forbid 
A last embrace while thus 
Juha. See Marcia ! See ! 

The happy Juba lives, he lives to catch 
That dear embrace, and to return it too 
With mutual warmth and eagerness of love." 
1 Hannah Fairfax, sister of Wm. Henry and Bryan, after- 
wards married Warner Washington, and not as suggested 
Mr. Martin, the nephew of Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax. 

'- Elizabeth, the sister of Mary Gary, married soon after 
this letter was written, Bryan, subsequently the eighth Lord 
Fairfax. 

^ Captain Cocke was then an officer of one of the Vir- 
ginia companies. 



OF AMERICA. 109 

shall meet. I must beg the favour of you to 
make my compliments to Col° Gary and the 
Ladies with you, and believe me that I am most 
unalterably 

Y'r most Obedt. and Oblig'd 

G** Washington. 



Tradition relates that in the year 1758, 
while Washington was traveling to Williams- 
burg, after crossing the Pumunkey river ferry, 
he was invited by a gentleman of New Kent 
county to tarry with him during the night, and 
was then introduced to the prepossessing and 
dignified young widow, Martha Custis.^ 

Repelled by the father of her whom he had 
loved from early youth, and yet longing for one 
in whom he could confide, the widow made a 
deep impression upon him, and after a brief 
acquaintance he was accepted as her future 
husband. 

The prediction made in his letter to Miss 
Gary, " You will hear something of me, or from 
Tne" was fulfilled. On the 25th of November 



' Custis's Recollections of Washington, New York, 1859. 



110 THE FAIRFAXES 

the heroic young officer planted the British 
flag on the ruins of Fort Duquesne, which the 
French had evacuated and burned at his ap- 
proach. Returning to Virginia he hastened to 
the house of burgesses of which he had been 
elected a member while with the army, and 
early in January, 1759, he was married at the 
White House, to Mrs. Martha Custis by the 
Rev. David Mossom of St. Peter's parish, New 
Kent county. 

He made the widow's house his home during 
his attendance upon the legislature. The first 
month of married life was hardly over, when, 
says Bancroft, "in the House of Burgesses, the 
Speaker obeying the resolve of the House, 
publicly gave him the thanks of Virginia for his 
services to his country; and when the young 
man, taken by surprise, hesitated for words, as 
he rose to reply, ' Sit down,' rejoined the speaker, 
'your modesty is equal to your valor, and that 
surpasses the power of any language I possess.' " 



OF AMERICA. 11] 

LORD FAIRFAX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Feb'y 16t'' 1759. 
Dear George : 

Yours I this evening received and shall be 
very sorry if Mr. Mason should be able to carry 
a point so prejudicial to the three counties of 
Fairfax, Loudon, and Prince W". If the 
Lees^ and Custis should join in the affair, I 
doubt they with the assistance of James River 



1 Col. Philip Lee was one of the descendants of Richard 
Lee, an early settler in Virginia, who is spoken of in the 
records of England (1654) as " Colonel Lee faithful and useful 
to the interest of the Commonwealth," and thus in sympathy 
with Digges. Bennett and others who upheld parliament. 

His son Richard was a prominent man in the colony and 
a fine scholar. On his tombstone in Westmoreland county 
is a Latin inscription, to this effect: 

" Here lieth the body of Richard Lee, Esq., born in Vir- 
o-inia son of Richard Lee, Gentleman, descended of an old 
family of Merton-Regis in Shropshire. 

'• While he exercised the ofiice of a magistrate, he was a 
zealous promoter of the public good. 

" He was well versed in Greek and Latin literature, and 
other branches of polite learning. 

"To God, whom he always adored with the greatest rever- 
ence, he tranquilly resigned his soul on the twelfth day of 
March 1714 in the 68"' year of his age." 

He left five sons : 

1. Richard, who became a London merchant and was the 



112 THE FAIRFAXES 

will carry it in the House of Assembly. I will 
therefore write to Col's Philip Lee, and Col. 
Tayloe and try what we can do in the Upper 
House. I have just received an angry letter 



father of George Lee, who married the widow of Lawreuce 
Washington. 

2. Philip moved to Maryhand. 

3. Francis. 

4. Thomas. 

5. Henry. 

Thomas, the fourth son. by industry and intelligence became 
wealthy. He married a Miss Hannah Ludwell, and had six 
sons. 

1. Philip, referred to in the above letter, who married 
Miss Steptoe. His eldest daughter became the wife of 
General Lee, the Light Horse Harry of the revolution, 
who was the father of Gen. Robert Lee, now president of 
Washington College, Va. 

2. Thomas, who married a Miss Aylett. 

3. Richard Henry Lee, born in 1732, educated in Eng- 
land, member of the first Continental congress, president of 
congress of 1784, one of the first senators of Virginia under 
the constitution. Died 1794. 

4. Francis Lightfoot, born in 1734, married Rebecca, 
daughter of John Tayloe, member of Continental congress 
and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Died 1797. 

5. William, sheriff" of the city of London, and U. S. 
commissioner, at Berlin and Vienna. 

6. Arthur, born in 1740, first studied medicine at Edin- 
burgh, then law in London. Member of Continental con- 
gress from 1781 to 1784. Died 1792. 



OF AMERICA. 113 

from Charles Carter ^ wherein he desires me to 
send him an account by Col. Martin, what his 
arrears of quit rent amount to, which is not in 
my power to do. I hope shortly to see you. 
My service attends Mrs. Fairfax. 

I remain Yours 

Fairfax. 

Tea at ni<rht. 



EDWARD ATHAWES TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, 24 Nov'r 1759. 
Dear Sir : 

I have just now rec'd the inclosed letter for 

you from the Rev. Mr. Mosley of York. He 

tells me it is of the utmost importance, as it 

informs you of the dying condition of your 

Uncle. I send it by the post to Portsmouth, 

in expectation of getting it on board of a ship 

now there, and bound to Virginia, under cover 

to Richard Ambler Esq. with a request to for- 



' The ancestor of the Carter family first settled in Upper 
Norfolk or Nansemond county, and was its burgess in 
1G49. In 1G54: he appears as burgess from Lancaster 
county. 

Robert, his descendant, was agent of the Fairfax estates, 
1.5 



114 THE FAIRFAXES 

ward it immediately to you. I have not heard 
any thing from Leeds Castle for a great while, 
nor do I see a line from you by any of our 
Virginia fleet, now arrived at Portsmouth with 
the Lynn, Man of War. 

My whole family are in the greatest anxiety 
on account of our dear friend, your brother Mr. 
W™ Hen^ Fairfax who the Gazette informed us 
long since was wounded at the battle of Que- 
beck.^ God grant he may be well. We all 
esteem and love him, so do all who know him. 
My respects of duty wait on L'd Fairfax, to 
his and your whole family. I am 
Your affectionate & obliged 

humble servant 
Edwd. Athawes. 



but giving dissatisfaction was superseded by William Fair- 
fax, the ancestor of the Virginia Fairfaxes. Robert was 
called King Carter. Charles was a grandson of Robert. 
1 The wound was fatal. 



OF AMERICA. 115 

GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO ROBERT CARTER NICHOLAS. 

April 1761. 

Dear Sir : 

I shcall proceed to tell you that during my 
absence and indisposition, there were some very 
sudden changes in our Ministry, among which 
was Lord Halifax who I suppose had a mind 
to make the most of his place at the Board of 
Trade. 

Without considering he appointed an under 
clerk and Mr Nelson ^ Naval officers in the room 
of our friend Colonel Gary - and poor old Church- 



1 3Ir. Nelson was the son of Thomas Nelson who came to 
Virginia in 1705, and a merchant at Yorktown, often called 
Scotch Tom, because he came from Penritf on the borders of 
Scotland. 

-Colonel Wilson Miles Cary was the descendant of an 
early Virginia settler. Miles, son of John Cary of Bristol, 
England, arrived in the colony in 1640. and settled in "War- 
wick county. He died in 1G67, leaving four sons, two of 
whom, Thomas and Miles appear to have been Quakers. 

Story, the classical and logical Quaker preacher, in his 
journal under date of 19 '' of 12 mouth, 1699, says '-Went 
to Thomas Carey's who had been lately convinced. His 
wife had been also. His brother Miles and wife coming 
hither to see us. were made partakers of the same visitation." 

Six years later. Story writes : " made a visit to Milts Carey 



116 THE FAIRFAXES 

ill who of the two I pity, for the other thank 
God has an independent fortune and can live 
very well without. 

But yet it is amazing that old officers who 
have discharged their duty so long without the 
least complaint, should be turned out. * * * 
Your affect and very humble serv't 

G. W. Fairfax. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO LORD FAIRFAX. 

Belvoir, May 1, 1760. 
My Lord : 

Upon account of your Lordship's affairs, I had 

concluded to stay till I had settled them to my 

satisfaction, but I have just rec'd another letter 

from my friend in Yorkshire, requiring my 



Secretary of the County, who being absent his wife a Friend 
prevailed with us to stay to supper." 

Col. Wilson Miles Cary had been collector of the lower 
district of James river for thirty-four years, and was a 
gentleman of culture and wealth. 

His daughter Sarah married Geo. Wm. Fairfax; his 
daughter Elizabeth luarried Bryan, brother of George, after- 
wards eighth Lord Fairfax ; and Anna became the wife of 
the distinguished Robert Carter Nicholas to whom the above 
letter was written, and Mary, the early love of Washington, 
married Edward Ambler. 



OF AMERICA. II7 

immediate presence to put a stop to the foreclos- 
ing of the mortgage on the Redness estate, 
which obliges me to alter my resolution and to 
prepare for embarking in the first good ship 
from this River, so shall be glad to know 
whether you have thought of any person to 
keep the Office, and how the books are to be 
disposed of, for I am afraid I cant accomplish 
my trip under twelve or eighteen months, in 
which time the business might suffer. Mr 
Carlyle has informed me that you signified a 
desire of removing down, which I wish could 
be convenient and then the same hand now in 
the office, and under your Eye and direction 
could continue the business, but if that be not 
agreeable, and you have no person in view I 
will endeavour to leave things in the best situa- 
tion I can, and I am certain Mr Dent is so well 
qualified now, that he can do and keep all the 
ordinary business, and if you have a mind the 
several receivers may be directed to make their 
returns of money to you, or any person you 
may please to direct. The Rev Mr Green ^ has 



^ Rev. Charles Green was from Ireland, and minister of 
old Pohick church in Truro parish, Fairftix county, from 1788 



118 THE FAIRFAXES 

kindly offered you or me any service in his 
power, and I think when there is any intricate 
affair, I dont know of any that I would sooner 
accept, for he has been formerly well acquainted 
with the office business, and is able to examine 
any plot that can be brought before him. Or 
I dare say Col: Washington could inspect into 
these affairs during my absence. But these 
methods I only mention in case you have not 
fixed upon any one for these purposes, for I am 
far from desiring the continuance of the busi- 
ness, but would willingly do all in my power to 
increase your revenue. * * * I am getting 
things ready to repair the house, and if your 
Lordship is inclined I will endeavour to make 
it as agreeable as possible, and truly say you 
shall be heartily welcome. I am with all due 
regard 

Your Lordships most obliged and 

very humble servant 

Go. Wm. Fairfax. 



until his death in 17G5. In his will he recommends that 
his wife shall retm-n to Ireland. He was intimately associ- 
ated with his parishioners George Mason, George Washing- 
ton and George William Fairfax, all of whom were vestrymen 
in 1765. At times he practised medicine. 



OF AMERICA. 119 

Beltoir, May 27, 1760. 
My Lord : 

Since your Lordships departure Sally tells 
me that Col Martin said you would not object 
to reside here in our absence, and as we did not 
talk on the subject I shall be very glad if you'll 
leave a line with Mr Carlyle to let me know if 
you'll choose any of the house servants should 
remain here. 

Col Martin it seems, told Mrs Fairfax that 
your Lordship would choose to bring down your 
own furniture, bed, table and chairs, except 
that they are troublesome to remove. The 
house, and every thing in it, is at your service, 
and all or any part of the negroes you think 
proper, I desire no rent for the house and 
plantation, as it will be an advantage to have 
them inhabited, and if your Lordship would 
choose any of the negroes should remain please 
fix your own terms. * ♦ * h^ ♦ There are many 
matters relative to your office, I should be glad 
to talk about, which I flatter myself will tend 
to your interest, and I hope you'll order your 
affairs at Greenway Court, so that you'll 
spend some days when you come down next. 



120 THE FAIRFAXES 

when I hope to have more leisure and less 
company 

Your L'dships humb servt 

G. W. F. 

My Lord : 

I was much concerned upon my arrival here 
to find that your Lordship had left Williams- 
burg. 

As I intended doing myself the honor of 
waiting on you the next day to receive any 
commands you might have for England, and 
again more particularly obtaining your permis- 
sion of absence for a few years about some 
private afi'airs of great consequence to myself 
and family. 

If your Lordship thinks your written leave 
is necessary I shall be greatly obliged to your 
Excellency, if you'll favour me with a line 
directed to the care of Mx Sam^ Athawes merch't 
in London 

Your Lordships most obed't and 

most obliged h'ble serv't 

G^ Wm. Fairfax. 



OF AMERICA. 121 

JOSIAH CLAPIIAM' TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Sir: 

When yoLi arrive at the City of York, please 
be kind enough to write my wife a line advis- 
ing where she may meet with you there, and I 
make no doubt she will immediately wait on 
you I having instructed her so to do. Then 
please direct her to Avhom, and in what manner 
she must apply for her and my boy's passage 
into Virginia, and in doing this you will add to 
your favours, the greatest obligation imaginable 
and forever bind to your services Hon'd Sir 

Your most gratefull and most obed't 
h'ble servant to command 

Jo : Clapha^t. 

N. B. She lives in Wakefield. 



1 The Claphams were associated with the Fairfaxes for 
several generations. A Mr. Clapham was private chaplain 
of Henry, fourth Lord Fairfax in 1684. 

Dorothy Fairfax, sister of William Fairfax, the founder of 
Belvoir, Ya., was the wife of a Mr. H. Clapham who resided 
at Hull, England. 

Josiah Clapham of Virginia was one of the trustees named 
in the act incorporating the town of Leesburg, and member 
of the convention of 1775. 



16 



122 THE FAIRFAXES 

GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

London, April IS^'' 1761. 
Dear Sir : 

I came to town about some business of Col. 

Gary's, and could by no means omit so good an 

opportunity as by the Convoy to enquire after 

your, and good Mrs Washington's welfare, and 

to let you know that it was with difficulty J. got 

here, and that poor Mrs Fairfax and I have 

alternately been confined to our chambers since 

we have been in England, but I hope as the 

warm weather approaches we shall both get 

better. It is impossible for me to fix the time 

for my return, but I shall do every thing in 

my power to bring it within the time first 

limited. * '•' ''' ''^ The chief news and talk of the 

Metropolis is of immediate peace, and the King's 

marriage- with the young Princess of Brunswick 

1 Massey, speaking of the marriage of George III, says : 

" High-breeding and personal merit was no qualification 
for the consort of a British Sovereign. Royal blood is the 
one thing needful and that was provided for in the person 
of a Princess of one of those diminutive Sovereignties, 
which bring ridicule on the royal dignity. 

" Homely in person, of narrow and uncultivated under- 
standing was Charlotte of Mecklenburg Strelitz * * * 

" That such a woman should have been productive of 



OF AMERICA. 123 

not quite fifteen years of age, but I believe 
neither certain tho' the stocks rise every day, 
and it is said the expedition Fleet is arrived 
and landed men at Bellisle in the Bay, but Sir 
Edward Hawke Avho is just returned from thence, 
says he left nothing but fishing vessels, the 
French having broken up and burnt all the 
ships that they could not get out to sea, and 
have removed all their valuables to the interiour 
parts. The changes and other particulars I 
shall refer you to the magazine herewith in- 
closed, and I wish I could say they were 
satisfactory to the people =^ * '•' 

Mrs Fairfax and I, thank God are upon the 
recovery and hope Buxton Wells strongly recom- 
mended will set us both quite right, and enable 
us to return within the time limited, but in the 
meantime should be glad to know your and 
Mr Green's determination about leaving that 
part of the world,^ for I assure you 'tis our 

domestic happiness could hardly have been expected but 
nevertheless it was attended with that good fortune." 

1 George Washington in a letter to Richard Washington 
of London, dated August 10, 1760, alludes to an invitation 
to visit England in these words : 

" My indulging myself in a trip to England depends upon 



124 THE FAIRFAXES 

greatest inducement, and will turn the scale 
very much whether we come back or not. 
Pray make my compliments to Mrs Green, Miss 
Bolan, and all our worthy neighbours, and 
believe me with greatest esteem Dear Sir 
Your affect, and very humb. servt 

Go. Wm. Fairfax. 

June 5>i' 1761. 

Mrs Fairfax : 

To H. Ambler 1)'. 

For making blew and white silck niglit gown 

body lining to do 

pd for 9 yds pea green rib. 

for 4 yds ^ of broad 

for mending crape gown 

for trimming black short apron 

pd for silck for trimming do 
Aug. 22'|'' for makingblack silck negligee and coat ( 

for making trimmings and trimming do 

for body and sleeves linings 

for ferritt buttons, looping and 

pd for 6 dozen 8 yds of black rib 

pd for 10 yds of rich black silck 

1 walking G-rey Lustring negligee 

£10. 0. 

Received March the 17^'' the above contents and all 

demands. 

Hannah Ambler. 



£. 


s. 


J. 


0. 


3. 





0. 







0. 




6 


0. 




6 


0. 







0. 







0. 




6 


oat 0. 







do 0. 







0. 




6 


0. 




9 


0. 


16. 


3 


7. 


12. 





0. 


2_ 






so many contingencies which in all probability may never 
occur, that I dare not even think of such gratification." 



OF AMERICA. 125 

GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

October SO'i' 1761. 
Dear Sir : 

Your favour of the 2'''^ of December, 6"' of 
March, o^ of April, 27*^ of July and first of 
August came very safe to hand. In that of July, 
I am sorry to find that you were in such a bad 
state of health,^ and that neither Mr Green's 
nor Mr Hamilton's prescriptions had the desired 
efiect. The latter's it seems you had but just 
begun and consequently could not expect an 
immediate cure, but I hope long before this you 
are perfectly restored. If not probably change 
of air might be of service, and if you had any 
particular business, or even fancy to see Eng- 
land, we shall be extremely glad to see you at 
York, or at our little retreat not many miles 
from it. 

But I hope a bad state of health will not 
oblige you to cross the horrible Ocean, tho' if 
better advice should be really necessary the 



1 George Washington, in a letter to Richard Washington 
of London, alludes to his sickness in 1761, and says : " I once 
thought the grim King would certainly master my utmost 
efforts." — Sparks' s Washington, vol. il, p. 336. 



126 THE FAIRFAXES 

sooner it is taken the better, and not delay it 
so long as our deceased friend. I am very 
sorry my mare Moggy did not prove with foal, 
and that I should have neglected to desire that 
you would put her to whatever horse you 
thought proper. It may possibly be occasioned 
from her travelling so great a distance after, 
and suppose you were to try your own horse 
Gift in the spring. It will be the least trouble 
and certainly will remove the suspicion. I am 
informed by many hands, tho' not from the 
performers, that an Office is really building at 
Greenway Court,^ and that his Lordship and 
family removes this very month. It gives me 
the most concern to find what an influence, 
Martin has, as I fear he will not stop at that, 
but will daily lessen the esteem the people have 
for the good old Gent". I oficr my compliments 
to Mrs Washington and am very sincerely dear 
Sir, 

Your most ob't humble serv't 

Go. Wm. Fairfax. 



^ Under the influence of his nephew, Col. T. B. Martin, 
Thomas Lord Fairfax moved the land office from Belvoir 
to Greenway Court, twelve miles southeast of Winchester. 



OF A]MERICA. 127 

I have been endeavouring ever since I have 
been in England to get a gardener or two, but 
without success. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO MR. FAIRFAX OF KEXT IX 1T16. 

Dear Sir : 

By the last post I had a line from our friend 
Mr Athawes advising that the Eev Mr Thos. 
Dawson ^ Commissary, died since I left Virginia, 
whereby there is a vacant seat in the Council, 
and shall take it as a favour if you would apply 
to Lords Halifax and Granville to nominate and 
appoint either Mr Martin or Colonel Presly 
Thornton ^ to succeed him. 

As Mr Thornton is a stranger I must acquaint 
you that he is a gentleman of property in the 
Northern Neck, and I dare say will be a friend 



' Kev. Thomas Dawson succeeded his brother, Key. William, 
as commissary of the bishop of London. Bishop Meade says 
that in his latter years he became addicted to drink. 

- Col. Presley Thornton was one of the most influential 
men of the Northern Neck, and in 1777 was a member of 
Washington's military famil3\ 

His son Presley was a British army officer at the time of 
the revolution, but would not fight against his countr}'. 



128 THE FAIKFAXES 

to the Proprietor thereof which is much want- 
ing at that board. * =^ ••= I have long observed 
that the lower members disregard and look 
upon the Northern Neck as a separate interest, 
tho' under the same laws. Whenever you are 
in a prospect of succeeding, if you'll let me 
know I will advance the money usually paid 
for the warrant. 



TO THE BISHOP OF LONDON. 

York, Oct. 1761. 
My Lord : 

Mr Leonard Watson having a very strong 
desire for entering into Holy Orders, and to 
remove to the Colony of Virginia has applied 
to me as an inhabitant thereof for a recom- 
mendation upon which I have made great in- 
quiry and with pleasure find that he bears a 
general good character and I hope your Lord- 
ship will find him qualified for ordination. 
The vestry of each parish upon a vacancy are 
empowered by law to elect their minister within 
a year, but if they should fail to do so, in that 
time, then the Governor or Commander in chief 
may appoint, so that Gentlemen that come over 



OF AMERICA. 129 

to be ordained seldom, or indeed ever apply for 
a title, or can have the assurance of a particu- 
lar parish, this I took the liberty to mention to 
your Lordship, as I understand it is required of 
those that reside in England. 

I am my Lord 
Your Lordship's most obedient humble serv't 
G. W. Fairfax of Virginia. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO HOX. MR. FAIRFAX OF ENGLAND. 

AsKAM NEAR YoRK, Sept'r 8, 1762. 
Dear Sir : 

As it was not convenient for you, Mr and 
Miss Martin to come to our last years races, I 
was in hopes it would have suited you this, and 
wrote to you about a month before they hap- 
pened by Mr Carcart who had business at 
Rochester, to beg the favour of your company, 
and till they were over, I must own I pleased 
myself with the expectation. Upon my friend 
Mr Croft's return from London, I had the 
pleasure of hearing of you, and since by Mr 
Athawes, and the former said you was surprized 
at not seeing me in town, a place, good Sir, I 
avoid as much as possible from the expen- 



130 THE FAIRFAXES 

sivenesH of it, but if you had any particular 
reason for desiring it, I would cheerfully attend 
you there or wherever you think proper. Mr 
Croft did inform my friend Mosley that you 
said it was expedient for me to return to 
America. But upon what account I know not 
for T dare say that you must be acquainted that 

Mr M ^ has carried his long laboured point 

of getting the management of the Office into 
his own hands, and removing it with them to 
Frederick, so that unless it's my own private 
affairs that require my presence I know of no 
other, for I have been hitherto, and can be 
indulged by the Commissioner of Customs, till 
I completed the business that called me over. 
Indeed upon the confirmation of this point 
being carried, I was more concerned upon my 
good Lord's account than upon my own, for I 
thank my stars, I can stand the utmost screw- 
ing, and have enough for me and my wife to 
live retired upon. 

Your ever obliged humble serv't 

G'' Wm. Fairfax. 



'Thos. B. Martin, nephew of Lord Fairfax. 



OF AMERICA. 131 

GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO RICHARD WASHINGTON. 

Oct. 7, 1762. 
Dear Sir : 

Upon my return the other day I found your 
favour of the 23*^ of September, covering some 
musick for my sister, who returns her thanks 
for your remembrance of her. I was surprised 
to find our friends had left Yorkshire, and more 
so that they had not discovered who it was 
that disconcerted their scheme. I left this 
place the 5'^ ult, and onl}- arrived two or three 
days ago. In my tour I had the satisfaction 
of seeing Scotland, my friends at Carlisle, 
Whitehaven, and along the coast to Liverpool, 
and now am determined to fix to business, and 
get every thing settled if possible, a month 
before my departure to London, and you'll as- 
sist me greatly, if you will apply for what may 
remain of my salary at the Custom House. 
By some of the last ships from Virginia I had 

a line from Mr Cary, and Col W ' they 

o-ive a most terrible account of the crops there, 
and the horrid prospect the people have before 



Colonel Washington. 



132 THE FAIRFAXES 

them. Corn what used to be 5 and 6 shillings 
a barrel is now thirty five shillings. 

Your namesake ^ says he is pretty well re- 
covered, and does not now mention any word 
of his coming over. Not a line from Mr Car- 
lyle, but expect that satisfaction by the fleet. 
The Ladies join in their compliments. 

Your affect, humble serv't 

G". Wm. Fairfax. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO HON. ROBERT ^ FAIRFAX 
OF ENGLAND. 

ASKAM NEAR YoRK, Nov'r 16, 1762. 

Dear Sir : 

Upon my return from a tour in the North, I 
received a line from Mr Washington, which 
gave me vast pleasure as it acquainted me of 
your having been in town, and in good health 
for I was really unhappy by not hearing from 
you for so long a time. 



1 Washington. 

^ Robert, brother of Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax, and suc- 
cessor to the title. 



OF AMERICA. 133 

Mr ^^. also said you signified an in- 
tention of going to Virginia in the Spring if" 
there was peace by that time, & as it now seems 
in great forwardness I have some thoughts of 
embarking there with my family, and shall be 
extremely glad of such good company, and shall 
do every thing in my power to make our cot- 
tage in that wooded world, as tolerable to you as 
possible. Do, my good Sir, think seriously of 
this and resolve to go. I really think it would 
be much to your interest to see once what must 
shortly be your property, for sorry I am to in- 
form you that by letters from many of my 
friends, I find, that my good Lord is much 
broken and declines fast,^ and it's also* hinted to 
me that my Lord is made very unhappy, 
which in some measure accounts for his desire 
of returning to England. We propose being in 
town two or three months before we imbark, 
and shall hope to have the good fortune of 
meeting with you there. In the meantime it 
will give me great pleasure to have a line from 



1 Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax, survived twenty years and 
died at Greenway Court. 1782. 



134 THE FAIRFAXES 

you. My wife and sister present their compli- 
ments and I am with great esteem dear Sir 

Yours &c. 

G° Wm. Fairfax. 



LORD ROBERT FAIRFAX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Greenway Court, 19"' Oct. 17G8. 
Dear Sir : 

I have mentioned the affair we talked of to 
my brother, he seems to make some doubts 
about it, as he says that he has promised the 
tenants to grant them leases ; however he says 
he will consider of it. =5= * * * My brother is 
determined to make you a visit as soon as your 
return to Belvoir, and hopes you will return as 
soon as you can, that the hunting season may 
not be too far advanced. He desires that you 
will let us know when you will be at home, 
that he may come to you as soon as possible. 
I need not tell you that I've no news for I have 
seen nothing since I have been here but Buck- 
skitis} I am at all times and places 

Your affectionate kinsman 

R. Fairfax. 



Buckskins, a term applied to frontiersmeu. 



OF AMERICA. 135 

GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO CAPT. THOMAS EDEN. 

Belvoir, May 10, 1773. 
Sir : 

I am told by Col. Washington, that his 
Excellency, Governor Eden/ informed him it 
would be agreeable to you to take passengers 
to London, which occasions my taking the 
liberty to address you and to beg to be informed 
as nearly as possible of the time when you 
expect to sail, where the ship will lay, and what 
are your terms for cabin, and steerage passen- 
•gers. My wife, two servants and myself at the 
most, with our baggage is all I propose carry- 
ing. * * * I am Sir 

Your most ob't humb. servt 

G'' Wm Fairfax. 



1 Governor Eden of Maryland married Caroline, daughter 
of Charles, fifth Lord Baltimore, and was governor from 1769 
until 1776, when the populace obliged him to leave the 
country. 

After the war he returned and soon died, and was buried 
under the pulpit of an Episcopal church on the north side 
of the Severn, two or three miles from Annapolis. 



136 THE FAIRFAXES 

RICHARD CORBIN TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Laneville, 16'!' Aug'st, 1773. 
Dear Sir : 

I could not let Captain Punderson leave this 
place, without acknowledging the receipt of 
your kind letter- from York, which in very few 
words contained every thing the warmest friend- 
ship could dictate. Mrs Fairfax's kind assur- 
ance makes my wife quite easy and happy, 
and that Frank is so I make no doubt. My 
wife indeed my whole family join with me in 
their best wishes for you and Mrs Fairfax. 
To hear of your safe arrival in England will 
give joy to your friends, to none more than this 
family and Dear Sir 

Your most humb. and ob't serv't 

R'd Corbin.^ 



1 Henry, the ancestor of the Corbins, settled in King and 
Queen county about 1650. His son, Gawin, became presi- 
dent of the council of Virginia, and married a daughter of 
William Bassett, and had four daughters and three sons, one 
of whom, Richard, was the writer of the above letter. In 
1754, Washington wrote to Mr. Corbin, stating that he would 
be pleased to receive a commission as lieutenant colonel. 
Through Mr. Corbin's influence as a member of the Virginia 
council, it was obtained and transmitted with the following 
laconic note : 



OF AMERICA. 137 

FRANCIS WILLIS, AliENT OF GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 
Leesburg, September 15''' 1773. 
Hon'bleSir: 

I impatiently waited the return of Miles 
expecting to have been informed of your reso- 
lutions respecting the renting of your house. * '^' 
You have not even hinted to me what you ex- 
pect per 3'ear, what time or number of years to 
let it for, nor have you desired it to be rented 
from year to year. I think it would be better 
to rent it on very low terms, than to suffer it to 
be uninhabited. Upon the receipt of your letter 
by Miles, I waited on Col. G. Washington, and 
after a day or two's consideration we resolved 
to decline renting the house or selling the 
furniture until we could be directed by you. * * 
Your very obedient servant 

Francis Willis Jun'r. 

Dear George : 

I inclose you your commissiou. God pi'osper you wit|i it. 

Your friend, 

Richard Corbin. 

I 

He lived at Laueville on the Mattapouy. in King and 
Queen county, and his wife was a daughter of Colonel John 
Tayloe. 

His son Frank was sent to England with Hon. G. W. 
Fairfax, to be educated. 
IS 



138 '^IIE FAIRFAXES 

ROBERT CARTER NICHOLAS TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Virg'a, 16"' Oct', 1773. 
My dear Sir: 

The interest I hold in your own and my sis- 
ter Fairfax's welfare makes me exceedingly 
anxious to hear of your happy arrival in Eng- 
land, and safe recovery from the small pox. I 
shall be sadly disappointed if the first ship from 
London, does not bring us this agreeable news. 
* * * We must therefore have patience, and 
a great deal I fear will be necessary in the 
present situation of the country, and the ex- 
treme scarcity of money, for tho' there is such 
a pother made by some of our Patriots about 
paper money, I think the day is not very far 
distant when they will be glad to rake and 
scrape every tattered bill they can lay their 
hands on. * * * 

Your affect, humble servt 

Ro. C. Nicholas.^ 



' Robert Carter Nicholas was the son of George Nicholas, 
M.D., who came from England, and married a widow Bur- 
well, of Gloucester county. He was distinguished as a 
lawyer, as a patriot during the revolution, and as treasurer 
of the state. He and his wife Anna, daughter of Col. 
Wilson Cary, were noted for their Christian culture. 



OF AMERICA. 139 

MATTHEW CAMPBELL TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Alexandria, Nov'r 11"', 1773. 
Sir : 

By this opportunity I send for Mrs Fairfax 
one box citron which I imported for her from 
Madeira. '•'' "^^ ''^' '•' All your relations so far as I 
at present recollect are well. We have had a 
prodigious sickly fall, and have lost about forty 
inhabitants amongst whom was Mr Tom our 
Presbyterian Minister, his mother, and Mr 
Joseph Watson. I hope this will find you both 
happy, in much ease, with society and books. 
This seems to be the most the world can bestow. 
Mr Adams joins me in compliments to both and 
I am with real respect Sir 

Your most ob't humb. serv't 

Matthew Campbell. 



He left five sous, oue of whom, Wilson Gary Nicholas, 
was au ofiicer iu the revolution, a member of the couveution 
to frame the constitution of United States, senator of the 
United States from 1799 to 1S04, and governor of Virginia 
from 1814 to 1817. 

Another son, John, was a member of congress from Vir- 
crinia from 1793 to 1801. Removed to Geneva, N. Y., 
and member of the senate of that state from 1806 to 1809. 



140 THE FAIRFAXES 

COL. GEO. F. MERCEK TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, December 2'"', 1773. 
My dear Sir : 

If this letter should break in upon your re- 
tirement I pray you Sir to allow the subject to 
plead an apology and I am sure it will, as my 
interest and the furtherance of some of my 
schemes are dependent upon it. Perhaps you 
thought, I am sure you wished, that all my 
Vandalia ^ prospects, were ere this fully within 
my grasp, but my ill stars still prevail against 
me. I am not yet Governor, and a fresh objec- 
tion, the last I hope they have to offer, has 
arisen against the policy of the grant, so far as 
it relates to Britain. It is urged that Colonel 
Fairfax a gentleman lately arrived from Vir_ 



^In 1749, Thomas Lee and others of Virginia, with Mr. 
Hanbury, a London merchant and Quaker, was incorporated 
as the Ohio company, and obtained a grant of land west of 
the mountains and south of the Ohio. After Lee's death, 
Lawrence, brother of George Washington, became principal 
manager. The Ohio company at length united with Wal- 
pole and others, and in 1770 Thomas Walpole, banker of 
London, Benjamin Franklin. John Sargeant, and Samuel 
Wharton, petitioned for a separate government of that part 
of Virginia, south of the Ohio, and west of a certain longi- 
tude. 



OF AMERICA. 141 

oinia, has confirmed what Lord Hillsboroiio;h 
had suggested, " that the inhabitants of Vanda- 
lia were not only out of reach of the arms, but 
the commerce of Great Britain," and that Colo- 
nel Fairfax had said many thousand "families 
were settled within the bounds of the new 
Province, and that each of them had a loom 
and spinning wheel, and would always manu- 
facture every article of cloath they wanted, of 
course would not want any British manufac- 
tures : and that the people on the Ohio might 
be easily and conveniently governed by Virginia, 
which not only made the establishment of a 
new and separate government totally unneces- 
sary, but that the separation of the intended 
government from that of Virginia under which 
it was at present, and by whom they were 
governed, would occasion great murmurs and 
perhaps insurrections among the settlers." 

I do not presume my dear Sir to oppose my 
own opinion to one so well informed as I am 
sure you are, and did I suspect you thought 
what was rejMrfed to have been your declara- 
tion, it would certainly have great weight in 
future with me, and indeed would, with as much 



142 THE FAIRFAXES 

decency as was practicable, retract what really 
has hitherto been my opinion. I must however 
pay that respect to the opinion I have hitherto 
maintained, to suppose this report has been 
spread as coming from one of your knowledge 
and authority in Virginia, in order to support 
Lord Hillsborough's assertions, and I am the 
more persuaded to this, as I recollect you were 
so obliging as to mention some conversation 
you had with Mr Pownall, in which you desired 
you might not be called before any public Board, 
being in no way interested, and having no 
knowledge of the dispute between Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and the Vandalians about the bounda- 
ries of the Provinces, and that you should have 
stepped forth, justified as you thought you were 
in your public character to have asserted the 
claims, and ask redress of the injuries, if any. 
had been offered to Virginia. I beg your 
pardon, my dear Sir, for presuming to give you 
this trouble, and I know public justice as well 
as your friendship manifested to me on so many 
occasions, will plead my excuse for asking your 
answer to this letter. 



OF AMERICA. 143 

My best wishes attend Mrs Fairfax, and I 
am with the utmost sincerity my dear Sir 
Your much obliged friend and obedient servant 

Geo. F. Mercer/ 



HON. JOHN TAYLOE- TO GEO. WM. FAIRFAX. 

Mount Airy, Dec. 14i", 1773. 
Dear Sir : 

Altho' I did not intend (by letter at a time 
when you must have felt anxiety at parting 
with so many friends) my good wishes yet they 
accompany you with the sincerity of a real 
friendship. 

Accept now dear friend the hearty congratu- 
lations of a friend on your safe passage. '=" * * 



' Col. George Mercer was an officer in the British service, 
son of John Mercer, native of Ireland, a resident of Stafford 
county, and a lawyer of eminence. 

- William Tayloe came from London to Virginia in 1650. 
His descendant, the writer of the above letter, was the 
founder of Mount Airy in Lunenburgh parish, Richmond 
county. He was member of the first council under the 
state constitution, and died April 12, 1779, leaving twelve 
children. 

His only son, John, in 1792, married a daughter of Go- 
vernor Ogle of Maryland, and their eldest son, John, distin- 
guished himself as an officer of the United States navy. 



144 THE FAIRFAXES 

The little son we have is now ill with a cold. 
:}: * :!: :i: :i: J }^^yq often wislied hitti as happy 
as his cousin Frank Corbin is, under your 
care, lest he become a racer for he is fond now 
of horses to distraction. Indeed his father is 
foolishly so, for he cannot help wishing for a 
good nag to take some of the Jockey club plates 
at Annapolis or Fredericksburg, where a week's 
sport is establishing for five years upon the 
principles of the Annapolis. I cannot leave 
this subject without giving you an historical 
account of the performance of my old horse 
Yorick (now 13 years old) who you know has 
been a stud horse six years. A match was 
made on him . by some young Fauntleroys,^ 
against a breed horse of Doctor W°' Flood's for 
£500 a side, quite on the Doctor's own terms to 
run one heat of five miles 12 stone, 12 lbs, 
which Yorick run easy in 12 minutes and 27 
seconds hand in hand the whole way, but what 
is extraordinary in this is that Yorick could 

' The Fauatleroys are of French origin, and were early 
settlers on the Rappahannock. William died in 1684, and 
left three sons : William, Moore, and John, whose descend- 
ants are numerous. A young Fauntleroy was killed at the 
battle of Monmouth, N. J., in June, 1777. 



OF AMERICA. 145 

not stand training for bad feet, which was his 
disorder when Selim beat him being the only 
time he ever lost the victory, and had not had 
a regular sweat in eight weeks.'^ This may be 
amusing to Capt Wentworth or some of your 
sporting acquaintances, as it must be thought 
by them a very extraordinary instance in the 
running way. ^' "=' '•' * 

Your most obed't humble serv't 

John Tatloe. 



J. H. NORTON TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

York [Va], March 27, 1774. 
Dear Sir : 

I have by Capt H Esten received your favor 

of the 27^*^ November, referring me to one by 

the Nelly, Capt Greig which I have not received 

and fear has miscarried. I consider myself 

very fortunate as having been the instrument 

of rendering your stay and good Mrs Fairfax's 



^ The Pennsylvania Gazette, August 3, 1774, copies the 
following from a Virginia paper: 

'• A Card. — A Virginian presents his compliments to the 
Jockey Clubs of Fredericksburg and Portsmouth, and begs 
19 



146 THE FAIRFAXES 

in London, any way agreeable. My father and 
mother are never so happy as when they can 
show civilities to my friends from this continent. 
The affair of inoculation proved quite agreeable, 
to my wishes, a mere bagatelle, and Mrs Fair- 
fax I find surmounted with great fortitude every 
dread which crowds upon the mind. ''' * * Tom 
was at the time of writing to me settling your 
household in the City of York which from all 
accounts is a most desirable place, and a com- 
fortable recess you must find it after having 
passed so many years in this country. I had a 
very good account of your petit maitre, Mr 
Corbin which I was glad to hear. I lately 
heard from your friends in Frederick, Hampton, 
and Williamsburgh who were all well, as was 
the family at Laneville. My wife joins me in 
duty to yourself and Mrs Fairfax. With 



that they will suppress their sporting spirit, till the circum- 
stances of America, can permit it with more decency. He 
also begs leave to recommend to the most serious considera- 
tion of these Clubs, whether their purses applied to the 
relief of the distressed Bostonians, would not afford them 
more real pleasure than all that can arise from viewing a 
painful contest, between two or three animals." 



OF AMERICA. 147 

compliments to Master Corbin I am as ever 
Dear Sir 

Your very much obliged 

and most obed't servant 

J. H. Norton.^ 

Mr Custis- is lately married to a lady in 
Maryland. 



RICHARD CORBIX TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Laneville, 27t'' June. 1774. 
Dear Sir: 



Two letters I have lately received from Mr 
Athawes, have given my wife some uneasiness. 
He tells me Frank" is volatile and too much of 



• John Hatley Norton, son of Jolin Norton of London. 
Rev. John H. Norton was a descendant. 

- John Parke Custis was the step-son of George Washing- 
ton. While in charge of a tutor at Annapolis, Md., he fell 
in love with the second daughter of Benjamin (usually 
called Benedict) Calvert and engaged himself. Washington 
objected on account of his youth. He then was sent to 
King's College, New York city, but returning for the 
Christmas holidays was soon married. He was an aid-de- 
camp of Washington at Yorktown, and died at the close of 
the war at the house of Mr. Basset of Eltham. 

•' See page 187. 



148 THE FAIRFAXES 

a man to be subject to school rules, and that he 
was afraid of his falling into the dissipation and 
vices of the times, and that he must either go 
to the University, or return to Virginia. * * * 
The Act of Parliament respecting Boston ar- 
rived here at the meeting of the Assembly. 
The part they acted was such that the Governor 
thought himself obliged to dissolve them. This 
dissolution as I think is always the case, has 
inflamed the minds of the people to a greater 
degree then when the Stamp Act took place, 
and they seem more determined.^ As the As- 
sembly did no business, the Fee Bill is expired 
and the County Courts will do no business, 
and every thing is in confusion. The Indians 
are committing devastations in the upper part. 
Several skirmishes have happened. God knows 
how these things will end. The Council have 



1 The assembly was in session at Williamsburgli, when 
the news of the Boston port bill arrived. Jefferson and 
others " rummaged over the pages of Rushworth, and cooked 
up a resolution " appointing June 1st as a day of fasting 
and prayer. The day but one after this, the governor dis- 
solved the assembly. Eighty-nine members then met at the 
Apollo tavern, and pledged cooperation, and recommended 
an annual congress of delegates from each colony. 



OF AMERICA. 149 

prevailed with the Governor to try another 
Assembly. Writs are issued returnable the 11 
Aug'st. The best wishes of all my family wait 
on you and good Mrs Fairfax and I am with 
the most sincere regard 

Your most obed't humble servant 

Rd. Corbin. 



J. H. NORTON TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

York Town, June 31, 1774. 
Dear Sir : 

I find you wave politicks altogether. The 
deadly machinations of the ministry against us, 
must in time lessen our esteem for Great Britain. 
In consequence of the proceedings at Boston, 
our colony intend to second their schemes by 
entering into violent Associations. The late 
Representatives in our Assembly are to con- 
vene on the V^ of August next,^ when such 



' Convention luet and appointed Peyton Randolph, R. H. 
Lee, Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard Bland, Benj. 
Harrison and E. Pendleton, delegates to first congress to 
meet in Philadelphia, in September. A gentleman writing 
to a friend, notices their arrival there in" these words : 

" The Virginia delegates to the Congress have arrived in 



150 THE FAIRFAXES 

measures will be adopted as are likely to pro- 
duce good effects. The Fee Bill is expired and 
of course no Courts can be held, so that the 
whole trade of the colony must decline. I wish 
for better times for they are very much wanted. 
Your niece Sally Norton and her little girl very 
well. S. N joins me in duty to you and Mrs 
Fairfax. 

Your very much obliged 

and humble servant 

J. H. Norton. 



SAMUEL ATHAWES TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, 25"' February, 1775. 
Dear Sir: 

^ ^ :$: H: H: 

There is a talk of a conciliating plan, but I 
see myself no appearance of it at present I pro- 
fess, for there is now a Bill passing the House 
respecting the fishery so full of cruelty and 
oppression that it cannot be read by any one 
who has a spark of humanity, without horror 



town — they are a fine set of fellows — even the New Eng- 
land men, are milksops to them." — Reed's Philomathean 
Address. 



OF AMERICA. 151 

and emotion. Five provinces I think because 
part of one has been thought fit to be declared 
in rebellion are to be starved for the North 
Colonies grow but little. They are inhibited by 
this Bill from receiving any from their sister 
colonies, nor can they [torn] without a license 
which I think is only to be granted if they sub- 
scribe a certain test and acquiescence to all the 
measures which has caused all the dispute so 
that the trade is not only to be demolished, but 
they are deprived of fish for their subsistence. 
God knows how this will end, but I heartily 
wish it may not ruin both countries. 
I am with affection Dear Sir 

Your very obed't servant 

Sam'l Athawes. 



London, 15'' May, 1775. 



Dear Sir : 
* 



The Secretary's son Mr John Nelson,^ Carter 
Burwell, and Mr Prentice arrived some months 



J Thomas Nelsou, sou of Scotch Tom of Yorktown, was 
long secretary of the council, and had three sous in the 
army of the revolution. 



152 THE FAIRFAXES 

since, the former for their health, and the latter 
I believe to attend to the practice of our courts 
of law, and I find them all agreeable young 
men.^ Nelson's disorder arose from a strain 
and was a chirurgical case of which he is re- 
covered, and he and Mr Prentice have engaged 
their passage with Capt Mitchell who I under- 
stand will sail in about seven or eight days. 
Mr BurwelP was this day inoculated being re- 
turned from Bristol where he has been by Dr 
Fothergill's advice for two or three months 
drinking the waters and living on vegetable 
diet. There is a Mrs Brodeau^ who is recom- 
mended to me as an accomplished woman skilled 
in French etc and all kinds of work, of a most 
sober disposition and good character who is go- 
ing to New York in order to set up a Boarding 
School. If you could send a few lines, in a few 
days, under cover to me, addressed to any one 



1 Carter Burwell, son of Lewis, president of the council of 
Virginia. 

- On a map of Virginia, prepared near this time, a few 
miles south of Essex Court House is marked Broder's 
School, can it be intended for Brodeau ? 



OF AMERICA. 153 

in that province, by way of introduction to her 
it would oblige me. 

I am with esteem Dear Sir 

Your very obed't & obliged serv't 

Sam'l Athawes. 
Col. Phil Lee ^ is no more. 

His friend and neighbor George Washington 
naturally became the agent to attend to the 
pecuniary concerns of Hon. Geo. W. Fairfax, 
after he went to England. 

In 1774 the plantation of Bel voir was leased 
to the Rev. Andrew Morton for seven years. 
The mansion house was brick, two stories in 
height. Upon the first floor were four rooms 
and a large hall, and on the second floor were 
five rooms. In the basement was a servant's 
hall, and cellar. Convenient offices, stables and 
coach house adjoined. The garden was large 
and filled with valuable fruit trees. A few 
years after, the house was burned. 

In examining the following account rendered 
by Washington, a charge will be noticed for 



1 Col. Phil. Lee, father-in-law of Major Gen. Henry Lee, 
see page 112. 

20 



154 THE FAIRFAXES 

lettering a pew in Pohick church. This edifice is 
in Truro parish, Fairfax county. It was built 
of brick from plans drawn by Washington, and 
completed in 1773, and here worshiped the 
patriot, George Mason, as well as George Wash- 
ington. In February, 1773, Washington bought 
a pew for Geo. W. Fairfax, and gave a bond for 
£16, and in August, 1774, it was lettered. At 
the breaking out of the civil war in 1861, the 
initials G. W. F., were visible. 

This was the final account rendered by Wash- 
ington ; for immediately on his appointment to 
the command of the American army he wrote 
to Geo. W. Fairfax, that it would be impracti- 
cable for him to longer continue to perform the 
duties of a friend, by having an eye to the con- 
duct of his collector and steward. 



OF AlklERICA. 



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156 THE FAIRFAXES 

GEO. SHAW TO GEO. W. FAHiFAX. 

WoMERSLEY, 20"' June, 1775. 
Sir: 

***** 

I am almost afraid to make enquiries about 
my friends in Virginia, of whom I have heard 
no tidings for a long season, and indeed I am 
too much in their debt to expect it. Sorry I 
am that affairs in the western World have taken 
so unfavorable a turn, and that any blood should 
have been drawn in the quarrel. I hop'd our 
disputes would have been previously adjusted, 
and tho' this has not fallen out to my wish, I 
still hope the day is not far off when we shall 
be bless'd with the joyful news, that both sides 
have made some healing concessions and re- 
settled peace on a firm basis. I see nothing to 
hinder this, if the inflammatory patriots on both 
sides of the water are not in the way, who with 
all their zeal may perhaps have the real good 
of both countries less at heart, than men of 
fewer pretensions, and greater moderation. It 
would give me the truest pleasure to hear that 
you are pursuing measures towards effecting an 
accommodation between the contending parties. 



OF AMERICA. I57 

You cannot en2:a2;e in a nobler work, nor could I 
wish you a more honorable inscription in future, 
than the Saviour of England and America. 

I shall take it, as a particular favour, if you 
will be so kind as to inform me how they do in 
James and Yorktown, and if you can further tell 
me on good grounds that aou entertain great 
hopes of a speedy reconciliation between perhaps 
an obstinate mother and her pert children, I shall 
be extremely indebted to you. I beg my humble 
compliments to Mrs Fairfax. My wife desires 
to add hers. I am with great respect and regard 
Your most obd't & obliged servant 

Geo. Shaw.^ 



SAMUEL ATHAWES TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, 19''' July, 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

The following extract of a letter which I 
have received from Virginia, may perhaps ac- 



1 Rev. George Shaw of England married a sister of 
Richard Ambler of Yorktown, and she was the grandmother of 
Charles Shaw Lefevre, late speaker of the House of Commons 
of Great Britain. 



158 THE FAIRFAXES 

count for L'd D e^ embarking with his 

family : 

"An unfortunate aifair happened by some 

of the citizens assembling at the magazine in 

order to arm themselves with the guns that 

were lodged there, and in going in they found 

two guns planted with spring locks, one of 

which went off and wounded three men, one 

dangerously, one lost two fingers, the other but 

slightly. The trap was laid by the G r 

which has incensed the people amazingly 

against him.^ It's imagined the Assembly will 

take it under consideration to-morrow, and how 

it will end God knows." 

***** 

Yours very affectionately 

Sam'l Athawes. 



1 Lord Dunmore. 

~ The next day, June 6th, Gov. Dunmore and family 
escaped from Williamsburg to return no more, and took 
shelter on board the man of war Fowey. 



OF AMERICA. 159 

NATHANIEL TUCKER TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Edinburgh, 11"' Sept'r, 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

***** 

Should Lady Dimdas be so obliging as to re- 
remember the offer she made of giving me 
letters to some of her friends here, they will 
arrive safe under your care if directed to me 
at the Reverend D'" Blacklocks, Bristo Street 
Edinburgh. I have good lodgings and am 
settled much to my satisfaction here in an 
agreeable and sober family in the suburbs not 
far from College, but sequestered from the noise 
and other disagreeable circumstances, that at- 
tend a residence in the city. But alas, my dear 
Sir, I do not find that the people here interest 
themselves in favor of our unhappy country, 
like those in Yorkshire. 

Few, very few are the friends we find among 
them and I am kept so much in the dark with 
regard to transactions abroad that any informa- 
tion in that respect would be a treat to me. 
Never since I crossed the Atlantic have I re- 
ceived a line from any of my friends either on 
the continent or in Bermuda, a circumstance 



160 'I'ilE FAIRFAXES 

which gives me a great deal of uneasiness and 
preys much upon my spirits. But it boots not 
to complain. * * * '" * 
Your very affectionate humb. serv't 

Nat Tucker.^ 



STEPHEN CROFT TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

York, [Eng.] Oct'r 1-', 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

I am very much obliged to you for a copy of 

the letter from Bunker Hill,^ and dare say the 



1 The second wife of the elder Thomas Nelson of York- 
town was a widow Tucker, whose first husband was from 
Bermuda. 

Nat and St. George Tucker were brothers, and the latter, 
during the revolution, lived in the Bermudas. 

Henry St. George Tucker, son of St. George, was born in 
1779, and married the mother of John Eandolph of Roanoke. 
He was sometimes called the Virginia Blackstone, and 
was president of the Virginia court of appeals, and a con- 
gressman from Virginia from 1815 to 1819. He died at 
Winchester, 1828. 

- Reference is made to the following letter of Washington, 
which is copied from Sparks : 

" Camp at Cambridge, 25 July, 1775. 
" Dear Sir : On the other side you will receive a copy of 
my last, dated at Philadelphia, the 31st of May, and to 
which I refer. I shall say very little in this letter, for two 



OF AMERICA. Id 

account is a true one notwithstanding what we 
have heard to the contrary. Every man's 
natural wish must be for that man, or body 
who is determined to support his liberty rather 
then become an abject slave, but you and I 
have lived to see that venality and corruption 
damp that Isle which formerly gloried in being 



reasons ; first, because I have received no letter from you 
since the one dated in June, 1774, and therefore, having 
written often, can have nothing to answer ; but princij^ally 
because I do not know, whether it may ever get to your 
hands. If it should, the principal, indeed only design, is to 
cover the second of three bills forwarded in my last. You 
will, I presume, before this letter gets to hand, hear of my 
appointment to the command of the Continental army. I 
arrived at this camp, the 2d inst. 

" You must no doubt, also have heard of the engagement 
on Bunker's Hill, the 17th ultimo ; but as I am persuaded, 
you will have a very erroneous account transmitted of the 
loss sustained on the side of the Provincials. 1 do assure you, 
upon my word, that our loss as appears by the returns, made 
to me, since I came here, amounts to no more than one 
hundred and thirty-nine killed, thirty-six missing, and two 
hundred and seventy-eight wounded ; nor had we, if T can 
credit the most solemn assurances of the officers who were 
in the action, above one thousand live hundred men engaged 
on that day. 

" The loss on the side of the Ministerial troops, as I am 
informed from good authority, consisted of one thousand 
and forty-three killed and wounded, whereof ninety-two 
were officers." 

21 



162 THE FAIRFAXES 

a Protector, and see addresses desiring a Court 
and Ministry to go all lengths, who were suffi- 
ciently inclined to run every risk, rather than 
give up their darling scheme of tyranny, and 
orlorn as the situation may be of those who 
act upon true Whig principles, yet I trust they 
will boldly bear their testimony of their dis- 
approbation of the dire effects of this mad and 
wicked project which proceeds from genuine 
Toryism, but it's somewhat hard to bear under 
the Brunswick line, and to hear the pretence 
of zeal and- affection, but I hope in some cool 
hour some honest good man may be found to 
stop the effusion of blood and treasure which 
seems to threaten, and must happen to the 
mother and children if carried on much longer. 
This is my prayer : Peace with just and equal 
liberty, but violence is the word at present. I 
beg but compliments to your Lady. 
Your most obliged and 

most ob't humble servt 

Steph'' Croft.^ 



J Stephen Croft, a prominent citizen of Yorkshire, grand- 
father of Rev. James Croft, archdeacon of Canterbury. 



OF AMERICA. 163 

NAT. TUCKER TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

Edinburgh, Oct. 2o^i, 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

***** 

I thank you for the kind hint for your good 
opinion of my prudence in avoiding to make 
myself enemies among the sticklers for Party. 
I do assure you, my dear Sir, you oblige me 
very much by the extract you give me from 
the letter of your illustrious correspondent.^ It 
afforded me vast satisfaction because it leaves 
room to judge what kind of opposition is likely 
to be made by the Americans to the British 
troops the fame of whose glorious achievments 
has been extended throughout the known world. 
It likewise shows us how little credit is to be 
given to common report which generally re- 
ceives its complexion from the crooked and foul 
channel thro' which it passes. I have lately 
received letters from Bermuda dated 5*^ August, 
and among them one from my brother St George, 
who is gone to exercise his profession in our 
little Island 'till the happy time shall arrive 

1 See letter of Washingtou, date Cambridge, July 25, 
1775. on page 157. 



164 THE FAIRFAXES 

when the restoration of peace to the Continent 
shall enable him to return and settle there. I 
am glad to find that the patriotic county of 
Middlesex has been exerting itself in opposition 
to the measures of a corrupt Administration. 
God grant that its efibrt may be crowned with 
success. 

Your obliged & affectionate humble serv't 

Nat Tucker. 



HON. ROBERT PAHiFAX TO GEO. W. FAHiFAX. 

Leeds Castle, 20 '' Nov., 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

Yesterday I received a letter from our friend 

Mr John Kandolph/ your Attorney General. 



1 John Randolph, attorney general, was son of Hon. John 
Randolph, speaker of the house of burgesses, who died in 
1737, and grandson of William of Turkey island, James 
river, who came from England in 1660, and by industry and 
intelligence amassed a large estate. 

He was also brother of Peyton Randolph, president of the 
first Continental congress. Sympathizing with Lord Dun- 
more and the tory party, John Randolph went to England, 
and died in London in 1784, aged fifty-six. 

His son Edmund stayed in Virginia, and was an aid to 
General Washington, member of congress, one of the framcrs 
of the constitution of the United States, attorney general of 
the United States, and secretary of state. 



OF AMERICA. IGo 

He wrote from Rochester in his way from 
the coast to Loudon, with his lady and two 
daughters. 

He informs me that my Brother was extremely 
ill and that Col Stephens had no hopes of his 
recovery, nature being quite worn out/ I 
thought proper to let you know this and wish 
you would not mention any thing about my 
brother, till we hear more. I am 

Yours affectionately 

R. Fairfax. 



EDWARD. LORD HAWKE TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

SuNBURY, Middlesex, 30ii' Novi^r, 1775. 
Dear Sir : 

I have received a very fine large Salmon, 

which arrived safe, in perfect order, and good 

condition. By the direction I apprehend it 

must come from you, and therefore beg you will 

permit me to return you my most hearty thanks 



1 Thomas, sixtli Lord Fairfax, then at Greenway Court 
named after an ancestral seat in England. During the 
revolution he adhered to the royal cause, and according to 
tradition, mortification from the surrender of Cornwallis at 
Yorktown, hastened his death in 17S2. Kobert was his 
successor to the title. 



166 THE FAIRFAXES 

for it, as I must confess it is the finest fish I 
have seen of a long while. 

I was extremely sorry that my time would 
not permit me to pay my respects to you and 
Mrs Fairfax before I left Yorkshire, for being 
an invalid and doubtful of the weather, made 
me anxious to get home as soon as possible. I 
shall flatter myself, my good Sir, with the hopes 
of seeing you with Mrs Fairfax at my house at 
Sunbury, and altho' a cottage, the Master will 
receive you with a cheerful countenance, and 
you will find a hearty welcome. I cannot ex- 
pect this favor, unless you should come into the 
South (as the distance is so far) but then I 
shall hope you will give me that pleasure. I 
must beg you will present my respectful com- 
pliments with those of Miss Birt to Mrs Fairfax, 
and that you will believe me to be with the 
highest esteem and regard. My dear Sir 
Your most obedient and 

most humble servant 

E. Hawke.^ 

1 Sir Ed. Hawke's mother was sister of Colonel Martin 
Bladen, and thus connected with Mr. Fairfax. In 1765 
Hawke was made vice admiral of the Blue, and in 1776 
was created Baron Hawke. 



OF AMERICA. 167 

REV : JONATHAN BOUCHER TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, Dec. 15^'', 1775. 
Sir: 

I take the liberty by this opportunity by Mr 
Clapham,^ the eldest son of your friend of that 
name in Annapolis, to enquire after yours and 
Mrs Fairfax's welfare. I left America that 
unhappy scene of trouble and confusion, about 
the latter end of September along with the Eev 
Mr Addison,^ his son, and my wife who all 
request to be affectionately remembered to you. 
This young man who is himself very worthy, 
and for whose father, I have long had the greatest 
regard, is somewhat embarrassed how to dispose 
of himself. Mr Hanbury to whom he was more 
particularly recommended, and who has taken 



1 The son of Jo. Clapliam of Annapolis, clerk of the 
revenue board of the province. 

•-i Rev. Henry Addison, A.M., was the son of Thomas 
Addison, a member of the council, and grandson of Col. 
John Addison, surveyor general of the province of Mary- 
land, who built Oxon Hall below Washington city on the 
Potomac, which still stands. He was educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford, and in 1751, married Rachel, daughter of 
the celebrated lawyer, Daniel Dulany of Annapolis. He 
was rector of St. John's parish, Prince George county, Md. 
A tory in sentiment, he went to England at the commence- 



168 THE FAIRFAXES 

very obliging and friendly notice of him, could 
he says, he believes with no very great trouble 
get him into a Counting House here. But the 
wages of such an appointment are so inconsi- 
derable, and the prospect of his hereafter getting 
forward with advantage in the world, in this 
way, so very little encouraging that he seems 
to think it can be eligible only to those who 
can do nothing else. Now this young gentle- 
man, has already got some share of classical 
learning, and is said to have an exceedinglj^ fine 
capacity for making a proficiency in the Classics. 
Mr Hanbury is therefore talking with me on the 
subject, appeals to me whether there was not 
a greater probability of his doing well by pur- 
suing his studies in that way than by attempting 

ruent of the revolution, but in 1780 returned to New York 
city, and wrote to Greneral Washington for permission to go 
to Maryland, but the request was not granted. After peace 
was declared, he came to the home of his ancestors, and 
died in 1789, aged about seventy-two years. In 1786, the 
legislature of Maryland allowed his son to hold certain 
lands that had been confiscated. He owned the tract 
opposite the Washington Navy Yard, at the junction of the 
Auacostan, the Indian name of the eastern branch, with 
the Potomac, upon a portion of which the writer resides. 
In the mansion of my neighbor, Mr. Anthony Addison, is a 
fine portrait of Rev. Henry Addison and wife. 



OF AMERICA. IQO 

the mercantile department. To the accomplish- 
ment of this however, money will be necessary, 
and I am fearful the little sum his father was 
on the instant able to give him may be quite 
inadequate to the expense of going thro' even a 
school education. 

He has an Aunt in Tadcaster, where it is 
said there is a good school and as she is at least 
convenient, I would fain flatter myself it may 
be in her power to accommodate him for a year 
or two, till haply the dark cloud now hanging 
over America, may be dispersed, and his father 
have it in his power to make him some remit- 
tances. * * * * * 

Your most obl'gd & most h'ble servt 

JoNA'' Boucher.^ 



1 Rev. Jonathan Boucher, born in 1738, was one of the 
ablest divines of the church of England in America. He 
came to Virginia at an early age, taught school in Port 
Royal, and was rector of Hanover parish, King George. 
From thence he went to St. Mary's parish in Caroline county. 
His next charge was at Annapolis, Maryland, and there John 
Parke Custis, step-son of General Washington, was his pupil. 

His last parish was Queen Anne's, in Prince George 
county. He had been opposed to the stamp act, but at length 
sustained the cause of the mother country, and became very 
unpopular. In his farewell sermon, he says: " It was my 
misfortune to be first known to you in these unsettled times. 



170 THE FAIRFAXES 

JOHN NOKTON TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, the 6''' January, 1776. 
Dear Sir: 

I wish I could give you any agreeable news 

from Virginia, but every thing seems to be 

growing worse and worse. Mr Benj. Johnston 

that formerly lived in Fredericksburg is here, 

one of the last from thence; he left Virginia 

22"^ Oct. Mr John Baylor ^ is likewise arrived 



Pains were taken to prejudice you against me even before 
you saw me. Many of you must remember, as I for ever 
shall, how on coming to take possession of my living tlie 
doors were shut * * * * j^^j. ^j^^ yQ^ have forgotten 
how near I was, on that memorable day, experiencing the fate 
of Stephen." Ejected from his parish he went back to England. 

In 1795, while vicar of Epsom, he published thirteen dis- 
courses preached in America, between 1763 and 1775, and 
dedicated the work to George Washington. He devoted the 
latter years of his life in preparing a Glossary of Provin- 
cial and Arcliseological Words. 

His wife was Miss Addison of Addison's Manor, near the 
present site of Washington city. Descendants still live on 
the original tract. 

^ John Baylor, the first of the name in Virginia arrived 
in 1650, and settled in Grioucester county. 

John, the third of the name, married Lucy Walker at 
Yorktown, January 2, 1744, and a sister of Lucy Walker 
married John Norton of London, England, the writer of the 
above letter. 

The fourth John Baylor was born at New Market, Caro- 



OF AMERICA. 171 

in Scotland but not yet come to London, I have 
had a letter from him. Mr John Randolph, 
his lady and two daughters have been at our 
next door neighbour's Campbell's when Mrs 
Necks took lodgings for them. The ladies have 
o-one thro' the small pox and are now removed 
to the other end of the town. The Philadelphia 
papers speak of a skirmish that has happened 
between Capt Squires of one of the tenders at 
Hampton, and some of the Militia commanded 
by Capt Nicholas (suppose our friend's son) and 
Capt Lyne in which they beat off the men of 
war's people, and killed several of their hands 
without loss to themselves.^ It is said tho' I 
know not with what truth that Commissioners 
are to go with the intended Army which is to 
consist of 50,000 men. God send that peace 
and tranquillity may once more ensue, tho' I 

line county, Sept. 4, 1750, at twelve years of age was sent 
to Putney grammer school, England. He married in Eng- 
land his cousin Fanny, daughter of John Norton of London, 
and returned to Virginia. 

Mrs. Baylor's brother John H. Norton, also resided in 

Virginia. . 

1 Dunniore threatened to burn Hampton in retaliation, 
but he was at length driven off, by a party sent from Wil- 
liamsburg. 



172 THE FAIRFAXES 

must own there is but a poor prospect of that 
event happening soon. The thoughts of it 
depresses" my spirits as well as those of my 
family who join in me best wishes to yourself 
and lady. 

Your very obed't servant 

John Norton. 



GEO. W. FAIRFAX TO JOHN NORTON. 

Dear Sir : 

**:!:;}:** * 

I was very soon informed of Mr Randolph's 
arrival and must own I was never more aston- 
ished, but did not hear of Mr Baylors until the 
receipt of yours. I presume the latter is come 
over on acc't of his health, or some business of 
consequence, but I am afraid the former's com- 
ing forbodes no good to his country, and I shall 
not be surprised if I should see in the papers 
his appointment to some lucrative place here. I 
really pity and sympathize with those that 
were here before these unhappy disputes com- 
menced, and now reside in England whose 



OF AMERICA. 173 

chief dependence was in having regular remit- 
tances from that once happy country Virginia, 
that will shortly become one of the principal 
seats of war. 

I cannot believe that the Ministry will be 
able to get 50,000 men landed in America, or 
that the Commissioners will do any thing- 
effectual, unless they are allowed to treat with 
the Continental Congress. They may indeed 
protract matters, and enrich themselves with 
the overflowing of your T — y, but I expect very, 
little national advantage from their negotiations. 
However I do sincerely and most heartily wish, 
that I may be disappointed, and that the Com- 
missioners may obtain peace and tranquillity 
throughout the British Dominions, tho' from 

letters lately received from G. W ^ I must 

agree with you, there is but very little prospect 
of so happy an event. Sad reflections for me, 
my good Sir, whose chief resources are now cut 
off, and forced to contract his living to the small 
income he has here * * * * 
Your most obedient and very humble servant 

G. W. Fairfax. 

1 G. W. Greoro-e Washincrton. 



174 THE FAIRFAXES 

SAMUEL ATHAWES TO GEO. W. FAIRFAX. 

London, 9ii' Feb'y, 1776. 
Dear Sir : 

* ;t: a: ^ i^ ^ ^ 

It has often been reported that Quebec is 
taken but I do not believe it; however I saw a 
gentleman who was just come to town from New 
York, and he says it was correctly reported 
that Lord Dunmore had given directions (for it 
is said he was not in the action himself) for the 
negroes, indentured servants, and about 80 
Grenadiers in all about 600, to attack about 1000 
Virginians and North Carolinians in their in- 
trenchments, and that the assailants were not 
only repulsed, but in a manner cut to pieces. 
It is said his Lordship I think was induced to 
this by some information in which he was 
deceived.^ The preparations making here are 
surely sufficient to make a humane man shudder, 



1 At an early hour, before sunrise on Dec. 9, 1775, Capt. 
Fordyce marched the British troops over the causeway, on 
the north side of the Elizabeth River, at the Great Bridge, 
and assaulted the Americans. Fordyce and every Grena- 
dier was killed. Lord Dunmore was induced to make the 
attack by the false representations from a servant lad, who 
had deserted from the American camp. 



OF AMERICA. I75 

and under these circumstances would it not be 
more becoming us as a Nation by fasting and 
prayer to the Almighty to omit the impending 
calamity than by dissipating at masquerades, 
regattas, etc. 

I am with truth Dear Sir 
Your affectionate & obliged serv't 

SAii'- Athawes. 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF REV. BRYAN, EIGHTH LORD 
FAIRFAX. 

Bryan Fairfax was the eldest child of Hon. 
Wm. Fairfax, by his last wife. During the 
French and Indian war he was in the military 
service of Virginia, and the following extract 
from his writings seems to indicate that he 
became a religious man at that period : 

" From twelve at night till two it was my 
turn to stand sentinel at a dangerous post. I 
had a fellow sentinel, but I desired him to go 
away which he willingly did. As soon as I 
was alone, I kneeled down, and determined not 
to rise, but to continue crying and wrestling 
with God, till he had mercy on me." 

He married Miss Gary, a sister of his brother 



176 THE FAIRFAXES 

George's wife. In 1765 he went to England, 
and while there the troubles began in Virginia 
arising from the Stamp Act. Daniel McCarty 
an old friend wrote to him on April 27, 1766, 
relative to a debtor. 

" We have had no law to compel him, or any 
other person to pay any thing, since the first 
day of last November, all of our Courts from 
that time being shut up on account of the 
Stamp Acts." 

In a few months he returned to Virginia, and 
in 1774 in a letter to Washington expressed 
himself as unfavorable to the resolutions of 
Fairfax county, relative to the British Govern- 
ment. Lossing says : " Just at the close of a 
mild April day while he [Washington] and his 
neighbor, Bryan Fairfax, with Major Gates 
were discussing the stirring events at Williams- 
burg connected with the seizure of powder be- 
longing to the colony, by the royal governor, 
and the bold stand taken by Patrick Henry, a 
messenger came in haste from Alexandria, 
bearing intelligence of bloodshed at Lexington 
and Concord." ^ 



1 Mount Vernon and its Associations, p. 98. 



OF AMERICA. 177 

Although Mr. Fairfax disapproved of the 
measures of Parliament, he was opposed to forci- 
ble resistance, and in the year 1777 having 
obtained a passport went to New York to em- 
bark for England, but the oath prescribed by 
the British commander there, was St) strict, that 
he could not conscientiously take it. On his 
return to Virginia, he again visited Washington, 
then at Valley Forge, and was received by him 
with his wonted kindness.^ 

In the year 17S9 he became a minister of the 
Protestant Episcopal church, and was probably 
ordained by Bishop White. While decided in 
his preferences for his own branch, he was free 
from bigotry, and accepted the moderate Cal- 
vinistic interpretation of the thirty-nine articles. 

As a preacher while not eloquent, he was 
logical and practical. 

An extract from a Sermon occasioned by the 
death of Rev. David Griffith^ of Fairfax parish. 



1 In Sparks's Correspondence of Washington, vol. 5, p. 24G 
is a letter of Fairfax, expressing his appreciation of Wash- 
ington's courtesy, and the reply of the general thereto. 

1 Rev. David Griffith of New York, received orders in 
England in 1770, and upon his return to America, preached 
for a short period at Gloucester, New Jersey. Having 
23 



178 THE FAIRFAXES 

and delivered at Fall's church August 16, 1789, 
and at Alexandria on the succeeding Sunday, 
from the text " So teach us to number our 
days, that we may apply our hearts unto 
wisdom," Ps. 90th. 12 v., will give some idea 
of his directness in the pulpit. 

"• But the loss of our friends or relatives or 
acquaintance will often prove a more powerful 
means to remind us of our own departure, and 
so teach us to number our days. 

"The Lord gives us many occasions, and 
many more than we rightly improve. The late 
mournful occasion may teach us the uncertainty 
of this life, and how needful it is to be always 
prepared to die. We have lost our worthy minis- 
ter of this Parish, and what could be more 
unexpected ? What a loss to his friends ! But 
how great a loss to his family, none but they 
who are acquainted with it can rightly know. 



removed to Virginia, he was elected in July, 1776, chaplain 
of 3d Va. Battalion. In 1786 he was chosen Bishop of the 
Virginia diocese of the P/otestant Episcopal church, hut 
owing to his pecuniary circumstances was not able to go 
to England for consecration. In 1789 he resigned, and 
Bishop Madison became his successor. On August 3d he 
died at the residence of Bishop White in Philadelphia, Pa. 



OF AMERICA. 179 

'Tis true they who sympathize with the dis- 
tressed may conceive in general the situation of 
a family deprived of its head, and truly pity it. 
But a loving and well ordered family sustains 
more than a common loss under its peculiar 
circumstances. When the head of a family is 
taken from it at such a time, so far from home 
and so unexpectedly, so useful and so beloved, 
(for it is hard to say whether the wife, or 
children, or father loved most) what shall we 
say as to the dispensation of Providence, but 
that his ways are past finding out. 

" But as the living know they must die, you 
should draw a lesson from the sad occasion, and 
reflect that you know not how soon your time 
may come. If you know not the time of your 
departure you should the sooner and more 
diligently apply your hearts into wisdom. 

" If he is to render an account of his ministry, 
you also are to give an account how you have 
heard, and what improvement you have made 
from it. You know he was diligent in his 
ministry as well as prudent in his deportment. 
And if any have been too slack in giving that 
support which they had promised 'tis to be 



180 THE FAIRFAXES 

hoped that they will remember their defects, 
and join the benevolent in their designed relief. 
'Tis indeed a duty in the people, to support 
their minister, for the Lord hath ordained that 
they which preach the Gospel should live of the 
Gospel. I need not insist on it, for it is so 
plain a duty and so reasonable that every one 
must acknowledge it. But the faults of a con- 
gregation must be pointed out or how shall 
they seek after wisdom?" 

The vestry of Fairfax parish, chose Mr. 
Fairfax to succeed Mr. Griffith, and he continued 
to be their minister until 1792, when to the 
regret of the parishioners he resigned.^ 

Washington in a letter to Sir John Sinclair, 
written on Dec. 11, 1796, makes an interesting 
statement relative to the old Fairfax plantation, 
and the family. He says : 

"Within full view of Mount Vernon, sepa- 
rated therefrom by water only, is one of the most 
beautiful seats on the river for sale, but of 
greater magnitude than you seem to have con- 
templated. 



' Hev. Bernard Page, before the war, a minister of the 
church of England in New York, became his successor. 



OP AMERICA. 181 

" It is called Belvoir, and belonged to George 
William Fairfax, who, were he living would 
now be Baron of Cameron, as his younger 
brother in this country (George William dying 
without issue) at present is, though he does not 
take upon himself the title. The seat was the 
abovenamed gentleman's before he went to Eng- 
land, and was accommodated with very good 
buildings, which were burnt soon after he left 
them. There are near two thousand acres of 
land belonging to the tract, surrounded in a 
manner by water. The mansion-house stood 
on high and commanding ground ; the soil is 
not of the best quality, but a considerable 
part of it, lying level, may with proper manage- 
ment be properly cultivated. At present it be- 
belongs to Thomas Fairfax son of Bryan Fairfax 
the gentleman who as I said before, will not take 
upon himself the title of Baron of Cameron." 

In 1798 the Rev Mr. Fairfax visited England, 
and proceedings were instituted to determine the 
validity of his title as Baron of Cameron. He re- 
turned to America in 1799, in time to be one of 
the sincerest mourners at the funeral of his life- 
long friend and neighbor, George Washington. 



182 THE FAIRFAXES 

The following are the names of the chief 
mourners and the order in which they followed 
the remains of the great good man from the 
mansion to the tomb at Mount Vernon. 

The printed order of procession states the 
" Principal mourners, namely : 

Mrs Stuart and Mrs Law 

Miss Nancy and Sally Stuart 

Miss Fairfax and Miss Dennison 

Mr Law and Mr Peter, 

Mr Lear and Dr Craik, 

Lord Fairfax and Ferdinando Fairfax." 

Washington in his will did not forget his 
friend, but says " to the Reverend, now Bryan 
Lord Fairfax I give a Bible in three large folio 
volumes, with notes, presented to me, by the 
Right Reverend Thomas Wilson, Bishop of 
Sodor am Man." 

On May 6, 1800, Lord Walsingham made a 
report to the House of Lords from the committee 
" appointed to consider the petition of the Rev. 
Bryan Fairfax to his Majesty, claiming the 
title and dignity of Lord Fairfax of Cameron," 
after which it was 



OF AMERICA. 183 

" Resolved and adjudged by the Lords spir- 
itual and temporal in Parliament assembled, 
that the claimant, the Reverend Bryan Fairfax, 
hath made out his claim to the title and 
dignity of Lord Fairfax of Cameron." 

Mr. Fairfax never assumed the empty title, 
and in 1802 died at Mount Eagle, near Alex- 
andria, Va. 



JOSIAS CLAPHAM TO REV. BRYAN FAIRFAX. 

Jan. 7, 2>"i, 1789. 
Sir: 

With this you will receive a few lines from 
Mr Johnson^ respecting the Falls etc. For my 
part I have long had an inclination to have 
water works at the Falls, and notwithstanding 
the fall in value of lumber, with the great 
increase of the number of mills in the country 
I still retain a fondness for that situation and 
I am of opinion that Mr Lee^ on due considera- 
tion will never possess it, except he can draw 



' Gov. Johnson of Maryland. 

- General Harry Lee of the revolution was a graduate of 
Princeton. After the war he was in 17SG a deletrato to 



184 THE FAIRFAXES 

you into a more advantageous bargain than the 
old lease. I am fully satisfied that to bring iron 
ore down from Kitockton to blow there will not 
answer, the heavy sum due you and the large 
annual rent etc. When all these things are 
duly considered I am of opinion Col. Lee will 
give it up, but if it should fall out otherwise I 
doubt not that we shall settle our matter with 
you on reasonable terms. I am Sir 

Your most obed't servant 

JosiAS Clapham. 



Congress, and in 1791 was governor of Virginia. In 1799 
he was a member of congress and delivered the Eulogy on 
Washington, and was the author of the sentence " First in 
peace, first in war, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." 
Land speculations about the Falls of the Potomac and other 
localities impoverished him. He died at Cumberland island, 
near St Mary's, Georgia, in 1818. Robert E. Lee, presi- 
dent of Washington College, Lexington, Va., is his son. 



OF AMERICA. 185 

BISHOP MADISON ' TO REV. BRYAN FAIRFAX. 

Rev'd Sir : 

The importance of the office of a visitor in our 
Church, and the necessity which exists particu- 
larly in its present state for the most strict and 
zealous discharge of the duties required, must 
I am persuaded be fully known to you. But 
the neglect of too many of the visitors hitherto 
has determined me to forward to each an 
earnest request to be no longer inattentive to 
the duties prescribed to them by the Canons. 
Let me then hope that your best and warmest 
exertions will not be wanting in your District 
to stimulate both by word and example the 
laity and clergy to a diligent attention to 
those duties upon which the interest of religion 
and the prosperity of our Church so much de- 
pends. Let me hope and intreat that you wdll 
be particularly attentive to the conduct of the 
clergy, and that you will hold it as a sacred 
duty to which every other consideration must 



1 Bishop Madison was bovu in Rockbridge county, Va., 
1740, and graduated at William and Mary in 1772. Presi- 
dent of the college in 1777, consecrated bishop of Virginia 
in 1790, by the archbishop of Canterbury. 
24 



186 THE FAIRFAXES 

yield to enforce the Canons wherever a disre- 
gard or the least iiiwiorcdity shall appear. 

I flatter myself I shall receive a full and 
regular report of the state of each parish in 
your district, on or before the meeting of the 
next Convention, as I shall then propose, God 
willing, that all the reports of visitors be read 
by the Secretary. 

I am Rev'd Sir with great respect 

Y'r serv't and brother 

J. Madison. 

July 10, 1792. 



BISHOP SEABURY' TO REV. BRYAN FAIRFAX. 

New London, March 1, 1794. 
Rev. and Dear Sir : 

The last evening Mr Jonathan Starr pre- 
sented me with 200 dollars, received by him in 
a letter from you. Greatly was I affected by 



^ Samuel Seabury, D.D., was a native of Groton, Ct., born 
in 1729. Graduated at Yale, and in 1751 went to Edin- 
burgh to study medicine. Subsequently he studied theology 
and was ordained in 1753 at London, by Bishop Sherlock. 
During the war of the revolution he sided with Great Bri- 
tain and resided in New York. Was elected bishop of 
Connecticut in 1783, and consecrated in 1784 at Aberdeen, 
vScotland, by Bishop Kilgour. 



OF AMERICA. 187 

this your liberality ; both as it was a testimony 
of regard for me, and an instance of the boun- 
tiful disposition of your heart, and shews that 
it delights in works of benevolence and charity. 
Acceptable to God must that heart be, which 
imitates the divine goodness m scattering bene- 
fits and extending blessings to its fellows. God 
only can reward you, and his reward is cer- 
tain — the comfort and satisfaction which ever 
spring from that faith which worketh by love, 
and the glorious prospect of that heavenly 
kingdom, where nothing but love can dwell, 
must be yours by actual possession, and by 
sure hope founded in the mediation and through 
the ever prevalent intercession of Jesus. 

Accept my most unfeigned acknowledgments. 
I wish much to know how you are, and how you 
iret on throudi this miserable world. The 
longer I live in it, the more I am convinced 
that its true worth is only estimated by our holy 
religion. It is only a passage to a better life, 
to that life which alone is worthy of the name. 
God grant we both may find it. 

The discourses I formerly mentioned, have 
been published. I wish to know whether they 



138 'I'HE FAIRFAXES 

have reached you. You had a son in Philad% 
did I know his direction, it would facilitate my 
communications to you. 

Commending you, and all your concerns to 
the protection and blessing of Almighty God, 
I remain your most obliged, and very affection- 
ate, hum. serv*. 

S. Bp. Connect, & Rho. Isle. 



PRESIDENT WASHINGTON TO REV. BRYAN FAIRFAX. 

German Town,' Sep. 8"', 1794. 
My dear Sir : 

It is not my wish to add to the trouble which 
I am sorry has been thrown upon you (in a 
manner unavoidably) in the management of the 
suit against the representatives or security of 
the deceased Doct'r Savage. But when I am 
written to on this subject by those who are 
interested therein, I feel the necessity of making 
some response, lest silence should receive an 
unfavorable interpretation. 

On this ground I give you the trouble of 



1 During the sickly season in Philadelphia, the president 
and other officers of United States government, resided at 
Germantown, six miles distant. 



OF AMERICA. 189 

perusing the enclosed letter from a Mr Peter 
Trener, and my answer; after which let me 
pray you to put a wafer in the letter and cause 
it to be forwarded, agreeably to the superscrip- 
tion, by the first good conveyance that may pre- 
sent itself to your view. 

Who Mr Trener is I know not, nor have I 
any recollection of what he says I wrote to him 
on the IG**" of Nov'r 1786 (having no papers of 
that date by me, at this place to recur to) . I 
have some imperfect remembrance it is true of 
an application that was made to me by a per- 
son in Virginia about the period he mentions, 
with which I was not favorably impressed, but 
why I was not so, or whether it came from this 
person I am unable to inform you with the 
least precision, nor is it of much account, as 
the authenticity and regularity of the papers 
he alludes to must decide his pretensions. 

With best respects to Mrs Fairfax, and with 
very sincere esteem and regard for yourself I 
remain Dear Sir 

Your most affect^ & 

obedient servant 
G*" Washington. 

The Kev'd Mr Fairfax. 



190 'JL'HJ^ FAIRFAXES 

PRESIDENT WASHINGTON TO REV. BRYAN FAIRFAX. 
PlIILADELl'HlA, 3ii Jaii'y, 1790. 

Dear Sir : 

Your favor of the 16"' ult'o came safe, but 
not in the time which might have been expected 
from the date of it. 

Mr Davies letter is herewith returned. I do 
not know that more could have been done, than 
you have attempted to do; but it is exceedingly 
to be regretted, that villainy, chicanery, and 
every species of delay should bring justice in 
such jeopardy, if it is not entirely defeated by 
them. I shall hope however that as long there 
remains a tolerable chance of coming at it, that 
the suit will be prosecuted, and that Colo' Simms 
and whoever else is employed therein will exert 
themselves to the utmost. 

I am of opinion that good policy dictates the 
propriety of assuring them a handsome fee, or 
rather a certain per-centage if they succeed ; 
nothing if they do not. 

Trifling fees are thrown away upon lawyers 
of any eminence, for they excite no exertion ; 
and it cannot be expected that in a case, which 
is, in a manner desperate, and without any 



OF AMERICA. 191 

appropriate funds, that large fees can be paid 
from our private purses. My advances to Mrs 
Savage in her life, during the days of her dis- 
tress was pretty considerable, and the Clerk's 
and Sheriffs fees are continually adding to it. 
Yours I am persuaded are equal thereto, and 
together shew the expediency of a vigorous 
effort; which I see no other means of making 
than the one I have sus-o-ested. 

My respects and the compliments of the 
season, in which Mrs Washington joins me, 
are offered to Mrs Fairfax and yourself. And 
with sincere esteem and regard I am Dear Sir 
Tour most obed't & affect servant 

G° Washington. 
The Rev'd Mr Fairfax. 



EARL OF BUCHAX' TO REV. LORD FAIRFAX. 
DRYBrRGH Abbey, Melrose. October 10, 1798. 
My good Lord : 

Having been at my residence in West Loth- 
ian when your Lo'p's letter Sept. 27, came to 

1 David Stewart Erskine, Lord Cardross, and Earl of 
Buchan, was tlie second son of Heury, lOtli Earl of that 



192 THE FAIRFAXES 

this place, and that I did not return hither till 
the 6 inst. I could not sooner with deliberation, 
give any proper solution to your queries. 

With respect to entails in England they can 
bind no further than to those in life when the 
settlement in trust is made but can be cut oflf 
by fine and recovery, a form or feature of law 
to defeat them, as you will see explained by 
Blackstone in his Commentaries on the Laws of 
England, and in his Analysis. I do not there- 
fore expect that there can remain any actionable 
claim or any succession of the Lords Fairfax 
of Cameron. 

In relation to my kinsman Charles Lord 
Fairfax of Emley and Gilling, he was descended 
from William the 3d son of Thomas the 1st 
Viscount. I from the 2'^ whose name was 
Henry, but Charles married the daughter and 



name and half brother of Thomas Lord Erskine, Lord Chan- 
cellor of England. His mother was Frances, daughter of 
Henry Fairfax of Hurst. After leaving the university of 
Glasgow, he proceeded to London, and was an attach^ of 
the Earl of Chatham. He was the chief originator of the 
society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Owing to declining- 
health in 1787, he moved to Dryburgh Abbey. He con- 
tributed various papers to scientific and literary journals, and 
died in 1829, at an advanced age. 



OF AMERICA. 193 

heiress of Nicholas, son of the 2^* visc't, so that 
he had a good title there being no entail in 
force to cut him off. At any rate Charles, lived 
so Ions; that he could make a new settlement 
in favor of the Pigots his nephews, who I find 
have sold that fine old place of Gilling Castle 
Manor, which when you happen to be at York 
again, it would be interesting to look at as 
a curiosit}' from its antiquity and beautiful 
situation. 

With respect to the pedigree of your own 
family, it corresponds to my supposition, and 
believeing that your Lordship can have no 
difficulty in proving it legally, you may think 
it reasonably proper to have your right ascer- 
tained to vote as a Peer of Scotland, at their 
elections, on which I am sure my brother will 
be ready to advise 3^ou as to the least expensive 
and most proper mode of obtaining the right 
thereunto, whether by service here in Scotland, 
or on exhibition of writs or by petition to his 
Majesty, and a consequent reference to a Com- 
mittee of the House of Peers. ^ 



• Thomas Lord Erskine was half brother of Earl of Bu- 
chau. For four j-ears he was a British midshipman, and 
25 



194 THE FAIRFAXES 

The account your Lo'p gives me of the vari- 
ous disappointments incident to your worthy 
life move me greatly to reflect upon the circum- 
stances which form as it were a laboratory of 
virtue, there being nothing more certain than 
our being profited by difficulties and by sufferings. 

In whatever way by my brother's direction, 
I can be the means of promoting the expecta- 
tion and establishment of y'r right to the 
Peerage of Cameron, it will give me great satis- 
faction, and I beg you will mention to our 
excellent friend. General Washington, the great 
pleasure it affords me to co-operate with him in 
friendship towards y'r Lordship and your family. 
Being my Good Lord with great regard 
Your wellwishing kinsman 

and ob. h. serv't 

BUCHAN. 



then served eight years in the army, but in 1777 became a 
law student of Lincoln's Inn, and in 1778, in the case of 
Captain Baillie, .established his reputation as an eloquent 
pleader. After the riots of Lord George Gordon of 1780, 
he protested against the doctrine of constructive treason. 
In 1783 he became an M. P. In 1792 he defended Thomas 
Paine, the author of Common Sense, and in 1794 Home 
Tooke charged with treason. In 1806 he was made a peer 
by the title of Lord Erskine, and became chancellor of Great 
Britain. He died in 1823. 



OF AMERICA. 195 

LADY ERSKINE TO REV. BRYAN LORD FAIRFAX. 

My Good Lord : 

Lest your Lordship should mistake the di- 
rection which I gave you in haste last night I 
send it you in writing, viz : Zion's chapel near 
White Chapel church. When you come to 
Zion Chapel, make the coachman draw up to 
the door at the back part of the Chapel, and 
enquire for Mr Emerson, who will have pleasure 
in placing your Lordship in a proper seat. 
Since I saw you, I have had an opportunity of 
making a full enquiry on the subject of the 
pictures, both in water colour or oil, and of the 
sizes you mentioned, and I think the informa- 
tion I have to give you will be satisfactory. 

I hope you caught no cold last night, and 
are better to-day. I am with sincere regard 
Your Lordships obliged friend 

and humble serv't 

A. A. Erskine.^ 

Spa-Fields, 

Octobr 27, 1798. 



1 



■ Lady Ann Agnes Erskine was distinguished for piety, 
and was the trustee of Countess of Huntingdon's chapels. 
Zion Chapel had been intended for a theatre, but was pur- 



196 'i'HE FAIRFAXES 

E. MIDDLETON TO BRYAN, LORD FAIRFAX. 

Kensington Palace. Novemb'r 7"'. 
I shall be very glad of seeing your Lordship 
on Friday next, and dinner shall be order'd at 
the hour of Five. I hope to have my two old 
friends to meet you that day, but poor Sir James 
Napier is I fear not well enough in this bad 
cold weather to venture out, and Sir William 
uncertain. So perhaps you will only find my- 
self, who will be always glad to receive so 
worthy a friend and relation, I am my Lord 
Your Lordships obedient serv't 

E. MlDDLETON. 



EARL OP BUCK AN TO BRYAN, EIGHTH LORD FAIRFAX. 

Dryburgh Abbey, November 22, 1798. 
My good Lord : 

It is proper for me to mention that in conse- 
quence of a request notified to me by desire of 
my Brother of Sergeants Inn that the introduc- 
tory letter of my truly respectable kinsman, 



chased by the countess, and turned into a house of worship. 
Lady Erskine died at Spa-Fields October 5, 1804. 



OF AMERICA. 197 

General Washington, which your Lordship 
handed to me by Lady Anne my sister, should 
be sent to him for corroboration of your proof 
of propinquity in Virginia, I did on the 7"' of 
November transmit the said letter to my 
Brother of which I am sure he will make the 
best use. 

It will give me great pleasure to hear of your 
health being restored, which the access you 
can now have to the best regimen in London 
will offer humanly speaking the greatest proba- 
bility. I am my good Lord, with my cordial 
esteem to General Washington when you write 
to that excellent person. 

Your L'dships most assured friend 

and humble servt 

BUCHAN. 



LADY ERSKINE TO HON. AND REV. LORD FAIRFAX. 

My Good Lord : 

I feared from my not seeing you that you 
was indisposed, and fully intended sending to 
enquire after your Lordship, so fully that I had 
given directions to my servant to go tho' I was 



198 THE FAIRFAXES 

myself so much indisposed as to be unable to 
write, at least with ease. I am thank God 
better, but except a few hours on the morning 
of my niece's marriage I have not been out of 
the house since I saw you. I hope you will on 
no account set out for the North till you are 
quite recovered. A relapse is in general worse 
than a first attack. Remember my good Lord, 
that ' He that believeth shall not make haste.' ♦ 
I am sincerely interested for your welfare and 
therefore give you this friendly caution. I 
received a letter this morning from my brother, 
Lord Buchan, which informs me of the safe 
arrival of the young couple at Dryburgh Abbey. 
My brother Thomas has likewise received an 
account of his son's safe arrival in America, I 
think at Baltimore. He was in good health 
and spirits, and said he thought of proceeding 
in a few days to Philadelphia.^ I hope the 
fever is not there, but the Lord can alike pre- 
serve in all places. I still hope I shall see you 



' David Montagu son of Lord Erskine, married in 1800 
Fanny, daughter of General Cadwallader of Philadelphia, 
Pa. Tu 1806 he was a member of parliament, and then 
minister to the United States. He returned to England in 
1809. 



OF AMERICA. JQy 

before you leave London, but not at the risk of 
health. * * * * j ^^g ^^ q^^_ 

scribe myself with sincere regard. 
Your Lordships obliged friend 

and faithful humble servant 

A. A. Erskine. 

Spa-Fields, 
Dec. 3, 1798. 



JAMES CHALMER BARRISTER TO BRYAN, LORD 
FAIRFAX. 

Abingdon Street, 11 January, 1799. 
My Lord : 

I had the honour of your letter of the 7*^ 
instant and in consequence wrote to Dr Fairfax 
of Leeds Castle from whom I have a return 
this day. He says his sight is very bad, and 
he is otherwise ill, his letter scarcely legible 
shows it. He says he knew your father, and 
your brother George, but in what way your 
father was connected with the last Lord Fair- 
fax he is perfectly ignorant. His evidence can 
therefore serve us very little. Your eldest 
brother having administered to the personal 



200 THE FAIRFAXES 

estate of your Uncle Henry, is material as 
showing he died without issue, and perhaps 
more may be made out by it when examined 
* * * * matters now I think, 
come just to the point, of making out that 
William your father, was the second son of 
Henry, the second son of Henry Lord Fairfax 
who married Miss Barwick. * * * 
I am my Lord. Your Lop's 

Most obed't servt 

Ja! Chalmer. 



THOMAS, LORD ERSKINE TO BRYAN, LORD FAIRFAX. 

My dear Lord : 

I saw the Chancellor with Mr Chalmer imme- 
diately after I left you, and he manifests the 
most liberal disposition towards you and has 
no doubt of your right of succession. * * * 
As to the expense of Council, it is out of the 
question, as I will be your Council, and if 
either your health and your natural anxieties 
lead you to wish to return directly to America, 
I will take care that your title shall be secured 



OF AMERICA. 201 

to you as effectually as if you was on the 
spot * * * I am your Lordship's 
very sincere 

and obed't serv't 

T. Erskixe. 



EARL OF BUCHAX TO BRYAX, LORD FAIRFAX. 

Drtburgh Abbey. January 14"', 1799. 
My Lord : 

I have had great satisfaction in considering 
your simple and unaffected delineation of that 
part of the worthy General Washington's con- 
duct and character, which has been personally 
known to your Lordship, and which will remain 
among my papers as a very amiable and au- 
thentic document. I have greatly revered the 
character of our illustrious kinsman ever since 
the year 1766 when I became first acquainted 
with it, and it gives me pleasure to think that 
the congeniality of our sentiments, has pro- 
cured for me, some little share of his esteem. 
Captain Erskine who is here continues to speak 
of your Lordship with great respect and inte- 
rest in your welfare, as connected wjth your 
26 



202 '^^^^^ FAIRFAXES 

own merit, and the wishes of our family for 
your happiness and desires to be so mentioned 
in this letter to your Lordship. 

There is a most worthy and respectable 
clergyman Mr Wyvill of Burton Hall near 
Bedale in Yorkshire to whom as a friend of 
•mine I have written that your Lo'p and he 
were to become acquainted, * * h: 
My nephew David, eldest son of my brother 
Thomas would I rather think be at Mount 
Vernon, or with the General wherever he 
happened then to be, about the middle of No- 
vember. He had letters from me to the General, 
and was to depend upon him for general instruc- 
tions with regard to his proposed tour in the 
United States. It was a happy circumstance 
that the malignant fever had ceased before my 
nephew's arrival in America, and I am now in 
daily expectation of receiving letters from him 
relating to the progress he has made, in the 
objects of his expedition. 

I gave him few letters, but they were all to 
good and effective men, better than scores of 
those that are usually sought for and obtained 
by common travellers. 



OF AMERICA. 203 

All at this Abbey join in good wishes to 
your Lordship and I remain with much esteem. 
Your Lordships affectionate Idnsman 

& obed't humble servt 

BUCHAN. 



LADY ERSKINE TO BRYAN, LORD FAIRFAX. 

My Good Lord : 

My young friend Mr Start returned full of 
gratitude to your Lordship, for your very kind 
attention to him, and waits on you to-day with 
much pleasure. I make him the bearer of this 
to ask if you will dine and spend the day with 
me to morrow. Doctor Haweis^ preaches in 
the morning and Doctor Ford in the evening. 

Next Wednesday, the meeting of the Mission- 
ary Society begins, and your Lordship perhaps 
would wish to attend the preachings at the 
various places, and if so Mr Start shall attend 
you, if it should meet wishes : but of this we 
shall have an opportunity of better settling 



1 Thomas Haweis boru in 1734. Graduated at Cambridge. 
Chaplain of Countess of Huntington, and in charge of her 
Theological Seminary. He died in 1820. 



204 'I'HE FAIRFAXES 

when I have the pleasure of seeing you to- 
morrow. I am with much regard 
Your Lordships obliged friend 

& humble servant 

A. A. Erskine. 

Spa-Fields, 
May 4'!', 1799. 



ISABELLA, COUNTESS GLENCAIRN^ TO BRYAN. 
LORD FAIRFAX. 

My Lord: 

Mr Start whom I consider to be a very excellent 
and deserving Minister of Truth, having in the 
course of mentioning your Lordship's goodness 
towards him, conveyed in the flattering distinc- 
tion of obtaining your countenance in America to 
enjoy which his whole mind seems disposed, in- 
formed me you were shortly to leave this kingdom. 

I have to request that unless you should be 
induced to take Margate in the way to embark- 
ation, I shall have no opportunity of assuring 



1 Lady Isabella Erskine, sister of Lady Ann, first married 
a Mr. Hamilton, and after liis death in 1785 became 
the wife of John the 15th Earl of Grlencairn, who was 
first an officer of dragoons, then a minister of the church of 
England. 



OF AMERICA. 205 

you of the respect and consideration which 

your character demands. If you should make 

such a plan convenient, it would afford me great 

satisfaction to make Updown a stage for your 

Lordship's accommodation, and I have the 

honor to remain My Lord 

Your most obed't serv't 

I. Glencairn. 
Updown, May 29'!', 1799. 



REV. JOHN XEWTON TO THE RIGHT HON. AND REV. 
LORD FAIRFAX. 

My dear Lord : 

I hear you are about returning to America, 
but how near to your departure, I know not. 
If you are in London after the 15^^ September, 
I shall hope to express my respects and best 
wishes to your Lordship viva voce. I mean to 
be in town if the Lord pleases on the 10^'' or 
11^\ but after so long an absence, I expect to 
be much engaged for a few days but hope to be 
at home all day on Saturday the 14. 

But for fear I should not have the pleasure 
of seeing you before you embark, I must in 
this way express my regard; and assure you 



206 'i'iiE FAIRFAXES 

of a place in my frequent remembrance and 
prayers. May the Lord who brought you 
safely across the Atlantic, return you safely to 
your family and friends. The winds and the 
waves obey Him, and under his care the sea is 
no less safe than the land. May new causes 
of praise and thanksgiving meet you on your 
arrival. I shall pray, that if it is best for you, 
your health may be established; if not that 
all your indispositions may be sanctified; so 
that if the outward tabernacle droops, your 
soul may thrive, grow in grace, peace and 
comfort. A favorite Author of mine (the late 
Mr Adam ^ of Winteringham) has advanced a 
maxim, which though it may sound strange, I 
believe to be well founded. He says ' Health 
is the greatest temporal blessing we can re- 
ceive, except sickness.' I believe the number 
of those who profit by sickness, may be equal 
to the number of those who make a due im- 
provement of health and good spirits. If the 



' Thomas Adam born at Leeds iu 1701, was for fifty-eight 
years, Rector of Winteringham, Lincolnshire. No offer of 
preferment could induce him to relinquish his charge. He 
died in 1784, and was the author of several religious works. 



OF AMERICA. 207 

Lord afflicts those who love him, it is for their 
good. If they are in heaviness He sees there 
is a need-be for it. When horses are high-fed 
and have little exercise, they soon grow restive. 
Thus it is said " when Jeshurun waxed fat he 
kicked." Ah ! we knew not, how we should 
have kicked, nor whether we should have run, 
if the Lord had not in mercy fed us at times 
upon the spare diet of affliction ! 

K I miss you this time, I expect to see you 
no more upon earth, but I trust we shall meet 
in a better world. There we shall look back 
by a clearer light upon all the way by which 
the Lord led us in this wilderness, and then I 
believe we shall be sensible that some of our 
sharpest trials while upon earth, deserve to be 
ranked amongst our greatest mercies. 

What cause, my Lord have we to be thankful 
for a good hope thro' grace. How does it add 
to the relish of all our temporal comforts, and 
alleviate the burden of our troubles. And it is 
a good hope if simply founded upon the person, 
love, atonement, and mediation of Jesus. He 
is set forth to be the brazen serpent to the 
wounded Israelites, and the invitation is gene- 



208 TPIE FAIRFAXES 

ral, unclogged, with no exceptions or conditions, 
it is only Look and live. 

May the Lord give you a lively sense of the 
truth of his declaration, ' Him that cometh I 
will in no wise cast out,' and that ' He is able, 
willing, and determined to save to the uttermost, 
those who thus come to God by him.' 

I trust your Lordship will sometimes think 
of me at the throne of Grace. 

I am my Lord 
Your affectionate and obliged 

John Newton.^ 

Southampton, the 20 August, 1799, 
at Walter Taylor's, Esq. 



1 Rev. John Newton was born in London 1725, and after 
going to sea at an early age with his father, accompanied 
him to York Fort, when he became governor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. 

After his father's death in 1750, he was engaged in the 
African slave trade. With a change of views as to the 
chief end of life, being a fine scholar, he applied for ordina- 
tion to the ministry, and was ordained in 1766, by the 
Bishop of Lincoln, and for sixteen years was curate of Olney 
in Buckinghamshire, and there was the friend of the poet 
Cowper. In 1779 he removed to London and their died in 
1807, at the age of eighty-five years. "One there is above 
all others," " Sometimes a light surprises," " How sweet the 
name of Jesus sounds," and many other hymns now incorpo- 
rated in the hymnology of the church are his compositions. 



UNIl 



5FAX, first 
:oud wile. 

arried 

;abeth Car 

•d Fairfax. 



DINANDO I 

Man-ici 
Slizabeth ( 



IIA. 

ed 
Jar}'. 



Ch 

A! 
Thos. 



J)KS(M^:n])Axts of iiox. WILLIA^[ Fairfax of bflvoiu, vikoixia, unitkd statfs of a>[fj{tca. 



WILLIAM FAIRFAX. 

Born in Hi!U. 

MniTied Savali Walker, in the Bflhamns, in 1T23. 

Second wife. Dcbnnih Clarke of Salem, New England. 

He died September :jd, 1757, aged (15 years. 



RGB Wm. Faiufa? 
Born tn \TM. 
krd Surah Cary. 



Thomas Faiufax. R. N. 

Killed in 



E Fairfax. 
t Salem, Mass. 



Wife of Mr. Carlyle. ni 
chnut of Alexandria, 



N Fairfax, flrsl child 
by second wife. 
Married 
\M. Elizabeth Cary. 
!d. 
^tli Lord Faii-rnx 



JIankah Fairfax. 
Married 
■nrr Washington, nephew 
of Gen. ■Washington. 



Oulanro. 

Married 

Mary R. 

Cary. 



: Raymond. 
: Died 1S13. 



Married 
:l8t, Edgar Mason.: 
:ad,Cha8. K.Hyde.: 



; EtH ELBERT. 

: Died 1827. 



]. Man- Avielt. 
■^. Louisa Wiishiiig 
3, Margaret Uerbei 



: AUREUA. 

Married 
iJas.W.Invii 



Lavinia. 
Died 1822. 



MONIMIA. 

Married 



I Reuina 



; Died 18(i2. 
Arch. Cary. ; c 



Elizabbtm Fairfax. 
VVifcttf David Orillilb. 



AxNB Fairfax, 
: Hy second wife. Married : 
: Charles CtUlelt. 



L90K Miles Carv. 

Married 
Lucy CJrinUb. 



Married 
t, Mary Jclt. 



: 5 


; Ma 


: 
nv Mi'Hlm. ': 


Dii'il. 




Difil. 



1. Sarah Ilci-lii'ii. 



Married 
los; Kii-lnntl.: 



; IlERBEnT. 

niiil. 



'ED STATES OF AIMERICA. 



child 



William Fairfax, 
Lieuteuaut in British army. 

Died at Quebec, 1750. 
No issue. 



Hannah Fairfax. 

Married 

Warner Wasliiiig;toii, ucplicw 
of Gen. Washinirton. 



-ary. 



Elizabeth Fairfax. 
Wife of David Griffith. 



Anne Fairfax, 

: By second wife. Mai-ried : 

Charles Catlelt. 



10 

Reginald. 
Died 18(i-i. 



9 

SISTINE. 

arricd 
T{.i''land. 



10 
Louisa. 

Married 

Mr. Tai)scolt. 




13 

Herbert. 
Died. 



: Washington. 
Died. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 



Page 17, Marriage Notice. 

In Lysons, London, is the following, taken from the parish 
register of Hackney : 

"Thomas Fairfax, Esq., married to Ann, daughter to 
Rt. Hon. Lord Vere, June 20, 1637." 



Page 22, Thomas, lliird Lord Fairfax. 

In the chapel of Bilbrough, erected in the fifteenth 
century, is the monument to Thomas, Third Lord Fairfax, 
and wife with this inscription : 

" Here lye the bodyes of the Right Hou'ble Thomas, 
Lord Fairfax of Denton, Baron of Cameron, who dyed 
November, y*" xii, 1671, in the 60th yeare of his age. 

And of Anne, his wife, daughter and co-heir of Horatio, 
Lord Vere, Baron of Tilbury. They had issue Mary, 
Duchess of Buckingham, and Elizabeth. 

" The memory of the past is blessed." 

Elizabeth died in early youth. 



Page 52, Thomas Fairfax, R. N. 

The following inscription was prepared by Hon. Wm. 
Fairfax of Belvoir, Va., a few hours after receiving the 
news that his son Thomas had been killed in battle : 
27 



210 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

"To" the memory of Mr. Thomas Fairfax, second son 
of William Fairfax, Esquire, who died fighting in his 
country's cause, on board the Harwich ship of war in an 
engagement with Monsieur Bourdeuaye, commander of a 
French squadron on the Indian coast, the 26th day of 
June, 1740, and in the twenty-first year of his age ; beloved 
of his commander Captain Carteret, and highly favored by 
his friend. Commodore Barnet, for his politeness of manners. 

" He was a comely personage ; of undoubted bravery j 
skilled in the theory of the profession; excelled by few as a 
naval draughtsman; and gave early promises by a pregnant 
genius and diligent application of a consummate officer for 
the service of his country. But the wisdom of Heaven is 
inscrutable, human life is ever in the hands of its author 3 
and while the good and brave are always ready for death, 
resignation becomes their surviving friends. Convinced 
of this duty, yet subdued by the sentiments of a tender 
parent, the tablet was inscribed and dedicated by his sor- 
rowful father. 

" May Britain, all thy sons like liim behave ; 
Like liim be virtuous and like him he brave ; 
Thy fiercest foes undaunted lie withstood, 
And perished fighting for his country's good." 



Page 79, Thomas Brian Martin, Esq. 

"In the year 1751, Thomas Martin Esq., second son of 
[Lord Fairfax's] sister Frances, come over to Virginia to 
live with his lordship ; and a circumstance happened a few 
years after his arrival, too chai-acttristic of Lord Fairfax 
not to be recorded. After General Braddock's defeat in 
the year 1755, the Indians in the interest of the French, 
committed the most dreadful nu^ssacres. * * * 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 211 

Every planter of name or reputation became an object of 
their insidious designs, and as Lord Fairfax had been 
pointed out to them as a captain or chief of great renown, 
the possession of his scalp, they would have regarded as a 
trophy of inestimable value. With this view they made 
daily inroads into the vicinage of Greenway Court. * * 
In this crisis of danger his lordship importuned by his 
friends to retire to the inner settlements, is said to have 
addressed his nephew in the following manner: 

'• Colonel Martin, the danger we are exposed to may 
possibly excite in your mind anxiety. If so I am ready to 
take any step that you may judge expedient for our common 
safety. I myself am an old man, and it is of little import- 
ance whether I fall by the tomahawk of an Indian or by 
disease and old age ; but you are young. I will therefore 
submit it to you, whether we shall remain where we are. * 
* * If we remain it is possible that we may both 
fall victims ; if we retire the whole district will immedi- 
ately break up, and all the trouble to settle this fine country 
will be frustrated, and the occasion perhaps, irrecoverably 
lost. 

" Col. Martin after a short deliberation determined to 
remain, and the danger gradually diminished and at length 
entirely disappeared." — Buniahi/'s TraoeU, p. \Q>b. | 



Page 92, Hon. William Fairfax. 

The Rev. Dr. Burnaby, Archdeacon of Liecester, who in 
1760 was a guest of Washington at Mt. Vernon, says: 

" Mr. Willliam Fairfax was a gentleman of very fine 
accomplishments, and general good character. He was a 
kind husband, an indulgent parent, a faithful friend, a 
sincere Christian, and was eminently distinguished for his 



212 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

private and public virtues. Throu<2,li the interest of liis 
relations, Brian and Ferdinando Fairfax who lived in London, 
and of whom the former was a commitssioner of the excise, 
he had been appointed collector of the customs of South 
Potomac, and one of his majesty's council, of which, in 
process of time, he became president." 

Bryan Fairfax was commissioner of customs at London 
from 1723 to 1748. 



Page 153, George William Fairfax. 

" In the year 1773, some estates in Yorkshire having de- 
volved to him by the death of Henry, his father's eldest brother, 
he found it necessary to go to England to take possession of 
them. So critical was his arrival, that he passed in the River 
Thames the ill omened tea, which eventually occasioned the 
separation of the American colonies from the mother-country. 
During the ten years' contest, the consequences of which 
Mr. Fairfax early saw and lamented, his estates in Virginia 
were sequestered, and he received no remittances from his 
extensive property. This induced him to remove out of 
Yorkshire, to lay down his carriages, and to retire to Bath, 
where he lived in a private but genteel manner, and con- 
fined his expenses so much within the income of his 
English estate, that he was able occasionally to lend large 
sums to the government agent, for the use and benefit 
of the American prisoners. He died at Bath on the 3d 
of April, 1787, in the sixty-third year of his age, and 
was buried in Writhlington church, in the county of Som- 
erset, a few miles distant from that city. He left a widow, 
a very amiable lady. * * * Having no issue, 

he bequeathed his Virginian estates to Ferdinando, the 



ADDITIONAL NOTES. 213 

second son of his half-brother Brian, the present Lord 
Fairfax." — Bunwbi/'s Travels. 

In his will General Washington was mentioned as an ex- 
ecutor. 



Page 165, Lord Fairfax of Greenway Court, Va. 

Archdeacon Burnaby says : " Lord Fairfax, though 
possessed of innumerable good qualities, had some few 
singularities of character. * * * * Early 
in life he had formed an attachment to a young lady of 
quality ; and matters had proceeded so far, as to induce him 
to provide carriages, clothes, servants and other necessary 
appendages for such an occasion. Unfortunately, or rather 
let me say fortunately, before the contract was sealed, a more 
advantageous or dazzling offer was made to the lady, and 
she preferred the higher honor of being a duchess, to the 
inferior station of a baroness. This disappointment is 
thought to have made a deep impression upon Lord Fairfax's 
mind ; and to have had no inconsiderable share in deter- 
mining him to retire from the world and to settle in the wild 
and at that time almost uninhabited forests of North 
America. It is thought also to have excited in him a gene- 
ral dislike of the sex, in whose company, unless he was 
particularly acquainted with the parties, it is said he was. 
reserved, and under evident constraint and embarassment. 
But I was present, when upon a visit of ceremony to Lieu- 
tenant Governor Fauquier, who had arrived from England 
he was introduced to his lady, and nothing of the kind 
appeared to justify the observation. He remained at the 
palace three or four days; and during that time his behavior 
was courteous, polite and becoming a man of fashion. * 
* * He had lived many years retired from the 



214 ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

world, in a remote wilderness, sequestered from all polished 
society ; and perhaps might not feel himself at ease when 
he came into large parties of ladies ; but he had not forgot 
those accomplished manners which he had acquired in his 
early youth, at Leeds castle, at the University and in the 
army. His motive for settling in America was of the most 
noble and heroic kind. It was always as he declared, to 
settle and cultivate that beautiful and immense tract of 
which he was the proprietor ; and in this he succeeded 
beyond his most sanguine expectations, for the Northern 
Neck was better peopled, better cultivated, and more im- 
proved than any other part of the dominion of Virginia. 
Lord Fairfax lived to extreme old age at Greenway Court, 
universally beloved, and died as universally lamented in 
January or February, 1782, in the 92d year of his age. 
He was buried, I believe, at Winchester. He bequeathed 
Greenway Court to his nephew, Colonel Martin, who has 
since constantly resided there ; and his barony descended to 
his only surviving brother, Robert Fairfax, to whom he 
had before consigned Leeds castle, and his other i]nglish 
estates." 



MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS. 



APPENDIX A. 

Extract of a singular and very expressive letter from an 
officer to his colonel, concerning the late battle where Capt. 
Jones lost his life, who commanded a fort on the Jlohauk 
river icith 60 men. 

They have used me very ill about the last Battle. 
They have coudemiied me tho' I did better than I 
expected. I declare upon my honor that tho' I run 
yet it was always in company. I ran three times 
which is a proof that I rallied twice which is more 
than many others can say, and it is a great thing 
for a raw soldier to rally twice that had never been 
in tight before. I wish to have no more of it if this 
is all I am to get. I declare upon my honor that I 
fired that day at least six times when in the after- 
noon several muskets were pickt up that were never 
fired at all. A man I think may speak in his own 
praise when he is condemned. The Battle was in 
confusion almost from first to last, owing to several 
parties coming in during the time of action. I'll 
tell you Sir how it was. 

Early in the morning an Indian was seen from 
the Fort, and it was either not believed or not 



216 APPENDIX. 

minded. About 10 o'clock two Indians were seen 
crossing from the East side of the River about half 
a mile above the Fort which you know lies on the 
West side. Cap. Jones went out immediately with 
40 men tho' several looked upon it as a decoy. 

He said he would have sent me but he was afraid 
I might be too rash and expose his men. Poor man 
if he had known my heart at that time he would 
not have thought so. I was always afraid in a 
thunder Gust when I did not look for more than 
one Bullet to fall near me this made me think how 
I could stand up against hundreds, and nothing but 
the Love of my country could have brought me 
into these wild Woods. Between the Fort and 
where the two Indians crossed there is a large stream 
of water which was then full with the rains. When 
we came to the stream for I was with him, we went 
up it and found that the Indians by their tracks had 
crossed over to our side, which they need not have 
done, as their company was lodged on the top of a 
mountain on the other side two miles off, which 
shows that they tried to draw us into a trap. They 
dropt meal to make their track plainer. Capt. 
Jones followed and crossed the River on a large tree 
just above a Mill Pond, and went up the mountain; 
and near the top we were tired upon from a Heap 
of Rocks, and Capt. Jones being foremost was shot 
down at the first fire. However his men stood and 
fought behind the trees, and tried to shout and 
holloo like the Indians, almost immediately a long 
strinsr of Indians run down the mountain about 50 



APPENDIX. 217 

yards above us aud got down in the Bottom to cut 
us off from the tree across the Run. So they had 
us between two fires. And you may be sure it is 
no trifling thing for a man to stand and load his gun 
when he sees an Indian about to fire at him. 

Xow soon after Capt Jones left the Fort the 
voluntiers from Xew York arrived with two Cap- 
tains and 120 men. And they had just got in when 
the action began. Of course they immediately set 
off with great eagerness half run, half walk, for it 
was a cloudy day and the firing was heard very 
plainly. "When they got near the place, the two 
Captains having Guides divided their men that they 
might come the better into Fight. Capt. Harris 
was to cross at the tree above, and Capt. Bailey at 
the Dam below. But unluckly the Battle was just 
then over, we had given way, and run down the 
side of the mountain and along the Bottom, and 
were all crossing at the mill dam just as Capt. 
Bailey came to it. The water was running over 
half leg deep, and no man in his sober sense would 
have crossed it; but what will not flying troops do? 
About this time the Indian Chiefs 'tis supposed on 
the mountain seeing Capt. Harris aud his men com- 
ing up to the tree gave three war whoops aud called 
back their people that pursued. This enabled 
Capt. Bailey to carry over about twenty of his men 
with some of ours that had been engaged, for he 
said he was bound to go over and support those 
that went to cross above — and he went up the 
mountain and along the Ridge with five men, the 
28 



218 APPENDIX. 

rest lagged behind, one stopt to cut a new ramrod, 
pretending the old one was too light ; another sat 
down to pick his flint and so on ; however, most of 
them ffot on alone; the side of the mountain so as 
to shoot at a distance and keep np the fight on that 
side. But this was not all. Ten waggons with an 
escort of twenty men arrived also at the Fort about 
a quarter of an hour after the ISIew Yorkers were 
gone and hearing the shouting and screaming they 
were also intent to go ; and the waggoners mounted 
their horses and with the escort set out to join — 
these coming up just as Capt. Harris, who had 
crossed the tree and engaged the Indians, was 
driven back again with some of his men, tho' others 
of them in moving about during the fight had got 
so much below it that they could not cross it again, 
and therefore they joined Bailey's on the mountain's 
side and continued the fight. The foremost wag- 
goner meeting Capt. Harris and his men, called out. 
Why — we are coming to help you — Come along, 
I'll show you a Ford a little higher up. Several of 
these went to the Ford and by that means engaged 
on that side; yet a few of these also run away. 
There is one thing more which was the finishing 
stroke. So many of the runaways had got back to 
the Fort that the ofiicer who was left there suftered 
his men at last also to go, who had been impatient 
to join, and who took with them some of their 
brother soldiers that had been in the first action, 
and had come down from the dam. These came 
in with fresh threats, and were of singular service, 



APPENDIX. 219 

as the stoutest lungs commonly carry the day when 
there is a heart to use them. As soon as they came 
in, the Indians seemed discouraged at so many 
Reinforcements their fire slackened, and they broke 
ground and run and were obliged to cross track that 
our people had so often crossed that day. It does 
not appear that more than sixty or seventy of our 
men were ever engaged at one time, tho' we had 
near 240 within hearing. 

When the Indians gave way there was a general 
shout, and it put new life into all, and engaged us 
the more eagerly in the chase. As this letter was 
begun for the sake of my own Vindication you will 
expect me to tell in a more particular manner how 
I was employed that day. And I will tell you the 
truth, and dety any man to contradict it. I went 
out with Capt. Jones, and fought and retreated with 
his men; and when we came to the dam Capt. 
Bailey wanted me to return which I had no mind 
to do, I said, " It is unreasonable to expect that a 
man just escaped from battle should have as much 
heart to return over such a dangerous place and 
that in the face of an Enemy as he that is just 
entering into it. Do you go over with your men if 
you like it and I'll go and join Capt, Harris on 
this side." So we parted. He went over with as 
many as he could get to follow him and I went 
up the Run to the tree with six of my men and 
two of the volunteers. I joined Capt. Harris and 
retreated when he did and went up to the Ford 
with him and the others ; and when all who about 



220 APPENDIX. 

me and near me to the of twenty ran away, 

I ran too, and never joined him again till the 
Indians gave way which was within twenty mi- 
nutes when they running by us we joined in with 
those that pursued them. This accounts for my 
saying that I run three times and rallied twice, 
and yet was in at the chase — for I had the con- 
science to call that a Rally, because the Indians 
came running by us and we followed as soon as we 
had company — I was at that time with another 
Officer sitting on the side of a mountain taking 
breath after we had been trying to bring some back 
to the field of Battle. We killed or rather found 
killed in a dispersed manner eight Indians in all, 
and we lost twelve men, besides twenty wounded. 
From first to last, the fight lasted near three hours, 

for was full five miles long and we had a much 

greater number in the chase than we ever had col- 
lected before. The stragglers came in from all parts. 
You will see from this statement that my acquittal 
from Blame or not will depend upon what passed 
at the Dam, which caused Capt. Bailey to say 
such hard things of me as he has. However, I will 
do him the justice to say that the success of the 
Battle was chiefly owing to him, and that he is 
highly to l)e praised for going along the Ridge with 
only five men and trying to coax on the others in 
order to support his Brother officer, without this 
the Battle would have been totally lost and many 
more killed. The waggoners deserve the next 
praise — and Capt. Harris the next and he is not to 



APPENDIX. 221 

be blamed, or who would be an Officer. Besides 
this — I tbink a man tbat strives against bis natural 
fears shows more virtue than he who acts bravely 
without fear. I saw an Instance of this in the late 
Action: a worthy man whom I know, when we 
crossed the Ford and engaged, looked as pale as 
ashes, his hands and knees trembled and yet he 
tried to fight, did put up the gun to his face and 
fired — soon after when some Indians came pressing 
in very close and fired, he seemed to fall thro' fear, 
for he was close by me, yet he did not run nor 
attempt it. I left him sitting when I gave way the 
last time. And yet this man was in at the chase 
and not amons; the Hindmost. 



222 



APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX B, 



Tithahles in Virginia, October, 1748. 



Accomack, 2353 

Albemarle, 1725 

Amelia, 2383 

Augusta, 1423 

Brunswick, 1765 

Caroline, 3551 

Charles City, 1506 

EUzabeth City, 1070 

Essex, 2610 

Fairfax, 1586 

Frederick, 1581 

Gloucester 4307 

Goochland, 2773 

Hauover, 3108 

Henrico 2979 

James City, 1543 

Isle of Wight, 3244 

King George, 1744 

King & Queen, 2899 

King William, 2392 

Lancaster, 1538 

Louisa, 1519 



Lunenburg, 1519 

Middlesex, 1400 

Nansemond, 2153 

New Kent, 1610 

Norfolk, 2190 

Northampton, 1529 

Northumberland, 2176 

Orange, 2679 

Princess Ann, 1559 

Prince George, 3190 

Prince William, 2222 

Richmond, 1837 

Spotsylvania, 1782 

Stafford, 1811 

Surry, 8367 

Warwick, 818 

Westmoreland, 2471 

York, 2054 

Total in 1748, 85919 

Total October 1752,. 95000 



APPENDIX. 



223 



APPENDIX C. 

Tiihahles in Virginia in 1757. 



CoruTizs. 



Accomack, 

Amelia, 

Albemarle, 

Augusta, 

Bruus\\ick 

Bedford 

Charles City, 

Caroline, 

Chesterfield, 

Culpepper, 

Cmnberland, 

Dinwddie, 

Elizabeth City, . . . 

Essex, 

Fairfax, 

Frederick, 

Gloucester, 

Goochland 

Henrico, 

Hanover 

Hampshire, 

Halifax 

James Citv, 

Isle of WiVht,. . . 
King & Queen, . . 
King William, . . 
King George,. . . . 

Lancaster, 

Louisa 

Lunenburg, 

Middlesex, 

Norfolk, 

Nansemond, ... 
Northampton, . . , 

New Kent, , 

Northumberland , 

Orange, 

Princess Ann, . . 
Prince George, . 
Prince William, 
Prince Edward,. 
Richmond, 



Whites. 


Blacks. 


Total. 


1506 


1135 


2641 


1251 


1652 


2903 


1344 


1747 


3091 


2273 


40 


2303 


1299 


976 


2275 


357 


143 


500 


537 


1058 


1595 


1208 


2674 


3882 


841 . 


1198 


2039 


1221 


1217 


2438 


704 


1394 


2098 


787 


1175 


1962 


316 


812 


1128 


889 


1711 


2600 


1312 


921 


2233 


2173 


340 


2513 


1137 


3284 


4421 


569 


935 


1504 


529 


898 


1427 


1169 


2621 


3790 


558 


12 


570 


629 


141 


770 


394 


1254 


1648 


810 


966 


1776 


944 


2103 


3047 


702 


1834 


2536 


702 


1068 


1788 


486 


1124 


1610 


655 


14.52 


2107 


1209 


983 


2192 


371 


1056 


1427 


1132 


1408 


2540 


989 


1264 


2253 


609 


902 


1511 


465 


1209 


1674 


980 


1434 


2414 


627 


1016 


1643 


840 


880 


1720 


650 


1138 


1788 


1384 


1414 


2798 


416 


410 


826 


716 


1235 


1996 



224 APPENDIX. 

Tithables in Virginia in 11 hi — continued. 



Counties. 



Surrv, 

Stafford, 

Spotsylvania, . . 
Soutliamptou, . 

Sussex, 

Westmoreland, 

Warwick, 

York, 

Total 50, . . 



44214 



Whites. 


Blacks. 


Total. 


587 


1006 


1593 


889 


1126 


2015 


665 


1468 


2133 


973 


1086 


2009 


778 


1388 


2166 


944 


1588 


2532 


181 


665 


846 


563 


1567 


2129 



58292 



103556 



APPENDIX. 



225 



APPENDIX D. 

Tobacco exported from Virginia from 11 ^k) until 1750. 



Exports. 



Upper District of James River, . 
Lower District of James River, . 

York River, 

Rappahannock, 

South Potomac, 

Hhds., 



1745 



10991 

1381 

11118 

12332 

G659 



42481 



1746 



10799 

1372 

11015 

10745 

6311 



40242 



1747 



9355 

1718 
12895 
12132 

5704 



41804 



1748 



12489 

3170 

11089 

13052 

6983 



46783 



1749 

11509 

3150 

10970 

15012 

7346 

47987 



Tobacco exported from 1750 untilll 55. 



Exports. 



Upper District of James River, . 
Lower District of James River, . 

York River, 

Rappahannock 

South Potomac, 

Accomack, 

Hhds., 



1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 



12974 

2218 

13802 

14331 

5242 



48567 



10858 

2525 

12054 

13553 

7713 



46703 



13530 

1423 

12623 

14299 

6505 



48380 



18830 

2113 

15127 

16815 

6959 

3 



59847 



13900 

1181 

14878 

13512 

7332 



50803 



Exports of 1755, 1756. 



Exports. 



Upper District of James River, . 
Lower District of James River, . 

York River, 

Rappahannock, 

South Potomac, 

Accomack 11 barrels 

Hhds., 

23 



1755 



47687 



1756 



13739 


7262 


918 


1096 


15344 


6918 


11963 


8531 


5723 


4645 



28452 



INDEX. 



Adam, Rev. Thomas, sketch of, 20G. 

Addisou, Anthony, 167 : John, surveyor-general of Maryland, 167 : 

Rev. Henry, sketch of, 167 ; portrait of, 168. 
Addison's tragedy of Cato, 106, 107. 
Alexandria, Va., formerly Bell HaVen, 89 : Presbj-terian minister 

of, 139. 
Ambler, Edward, 103 : H., mantua maker, 124 : Richard, 113, 157. 
Apple grafts, 99. 
Athawes, Edmimd, 97, 113 : Samuel, 120, 150, 157, 174. 

Barwick, Sir Robert, 23, 56 : Ursula, 25 ; letter to her son, 25. 

Bassett, William, 136. 

Baylis, Mr.. 100. 

Baylor, John, visits Scotland, 171, 172 ; sketch of, 171. 

Belvoir, seat of G. W. Fairfax, 83, 153 ; described by Washington, 
180. 

Bishop of London, 128. 

Blacklock, Rev. Dr., 159. 

Bladen, Col. Martm, 64, 05, 67; Mary wife of, 71 : Nathaniel, bar- 
rister, 29. 

Boarding school proposed, 152. 

Boston Port Bill, 148, 149. 

Boucher, Rev. Jonathan, letter of, 167 ; sketch of, 169. 

Braddock, General, 89. 

Brodeau, Mrs., school of, 152. 

Buchan, Earl, sketch of, 191 ; admiration of Washington, 201. 

Buckskins, nickname of frontiersmen, 134. 

Bullitt, Capt., at Fort Duquesne, 105. 

Bunker HiU battle, 160. 

Burk, error in History of Virginia, 47. 

Burnaby, Archdeacon, biographical sketches, 209, 214. 

Burwell, Carter, 152. 

Byng, Admiral John, 86 : Sir G., notice of, 62. 



228 INDEX. 

Campbell, error iu History of Virginia, 47 : Matthew, 139. 

Carter family, 113 : Charles, 113 ; Joseph, 99 : Eobert, 113. 

Cary, Colonel, sketch of, 115 ; objects to daughter's marriage, 102 : 

Elizabeth, wife of Rev. Bryan Fairfax, 108 : Mary, early love 

of Washington, 101 ; letter from Washington, 103 : Sarah, 

wife of George W. Fairfax, 81, 95, 119. 
Cheeseman, Captain, 85. 
Chester, Captain, 84. 
Clapham, Dorothy, 86 : H., 85 : Jo of Annapolis, 121, 167 : Josiah 

of Leesburg, 121 : Rev. Mr., chaplain 4th Lord Fairfax, 37. 
Clargis, Sir Thomas, 19. 
Clarke, Deborah, 48. 
Clubs, Jockey, 144. 
Cocke, Captain, 82, 108. 
Constable, Sir Wm, 10, 11. 
Cooling, Captain, 78. 
Corbin family, 136 : Frank, educated in England, 137, 144, 147 : 

Richard, obtains Washington's commission, 136. 
Croft, Stephen, on American troubles, 162. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 3. 

Culpepper, Catharine, marries 5th Lord Fairfax, 39. 
Custis family, 147 : Jno. Parke, 147 ; Martha 110. 

Danby, Earl of, 29. 

Dawson, Rev. Thomas, 127. 

Delicia, ship, 69, 74. 

Dent, Mr., 117. 

Denton Hall, seat of General Lord Fairfax, 37. 

Dinwiddle, Governor, 80. 

Dulany, Daniel, 167. 

Dunbar, Colonel, 80. 

Dundas, Lady, 159. 

Dunmore, Gov., leaves Williamsburg, 158 ; threatens Hampton, 171. 

Dunton, John, 44. 

Duquesne, fort, 104. 

Eden, Captain, Thomas, 135 ; Robert, Governor of Maryland, 135. 

Erskine, David, Earl of Buchan, 191, 196: David Montagu, sketch 
of, 198 ; visits U. States, 202 ; marries, 198 : Ann Agnes, Lady, 
195, 197, 203 ; Isabella, Countess of Gleucairn, 204 : Thomas, 
Lord Chancellor, 193. 

Everett, Edward, error in article on Washington, 101. 

Evro, Littleton, 91. 



INDDX. 229 

Fairfax, Tliomas, First Lord, 8 ; children, 9 ; death, 8. 

Ferdinaudo, Second Lord, 9 ; at Marston Moor, 9 ; writes to 

Lady Vere, 14. 
Thomas, Third Lord, 9 ; marriage, 17, 309 ; hero of Naseby, 9 ; 
visits Charles 3d, 30 ; sickness and death, 31, 23 ; inscrip- 
tion on tomb, 309 ; sketch of, 18. 
Henry, Fourth Lord, 28 ; notice of, 38, 37 ; letters of, 84, 36. 
Tliomas, Fifth Lord, 37 ; notice of, 39 ; letters of, 41. 
Thomas, Sixth Lord, 49 ; proprietor of Northen Neck, 49 ; 
grandson of L'd Culpeper, 77 ; in Virginia, 77 ; death of, 
165 ; notice of, 213 ; lettere of, 77, 78, 79, 83, 84, 91, 98, 99, 
111. 
Robert, Seventh Lord, 91 ; visits Virginia, 96 ; at Greenway 

Court, 134 ; notice of, 314. 
Bryan, Eight Lord, 175 ; a neutral, 176 : intimate with Wash- 
ington, 176 ; enters the sacred ministry, 177 ; visits Eng- 
land, 181 ; at Waslungton's funeral, 183 ; donation to Bishop 
Seabury, 186. 
Fairfax, Ann, wife of Sheriff Henry, 61, 71 : Anna wife of Lawrence 
Washington, 53 : Bryan, cousin of 3d Lord, 19, 28 ; brother of 
Hon William, 63, 69 ; see Eight Lord Fairfax, 175 : Dorothy, 
wife of Sir W. Constable, 9 ; daughter of 4th Lord Fairfax, 73 ; 
sister of Hon. William, 86 : Frances, daughter of 4th Lord 
Fairfax, 34 : George William, Son of Hon William, 51 ; travels 
with Washington 51 ; writes to Dinwiddle, 80 ; visits England 
in 1757, 93 ; declines to be a candidate for House of Burgesses, 
98 ; visits England again, 117 ; writes to Washington, 123 ; 
sick in England, 132 ; his mare Moggy, 126 ; visits Scotland, 
131 ; Burnaby's sketch of, 212 : Hannah, wife of Warner 
Washington, 52 : Henry, Rev., fatlier of 4th Lord, 38 ; Sheriff 
of Yorkshire, 34, 53 ; notes from his father, 34 ; note to his wife, 
35 ; notice of, 37 : Henry, son of the sheriff, 47 ; at Lowther 
school, 54, Isabella, wife of Nath. Bladen, 28: Mary, wife of 
Henry Arthington, 13 : Mary, wife of Duke of Buckingham, 17, 
18 : Robert, admiral British navy, 61 : Thomas, royal navy, kill- 
ed in East Indies, 52 ; obituary notice, 309 : William, of Steeton, 
killed, 33 ; letter from, 33 : William, Pres. of Va. Council, 47 ; 
attends Lowi:her school, 48, 54 ; entere navy, 48, 55, 56 ; letters to 
mother, 63, 64, 69, 74 ; marriage, 48, 74 ; judge at the Bahamas, 
74; collector of Salem, Mass., 48; wife dies, 48, 74; marries 
again, 49 ; moves to Virginia, 49 ; daughter wife of L. Washing- 
ton, 49 ; Collector for Soiith Potomac, 51 ; death of, 90, 91 ; 
sketch of, 311 : William, son of Hon. William, 53 ; Ensign 28th 



230 INDEX. 

Fairfax, continued. 

British Infautny, 105 ; fatally woundud at QuoVcc, lOG, 114 ; 
General Wolfe's remark to, lOG. 

Falls Cluircli, 178. 

Falls of the Potomac, 183. 

Family of Addison, 167; Baylor, 170 ; Carter, 113 ; Cary, 115 ; Clap- 
ham, 131, 167 ; Corbin, 136 ; Dawson, 127 ; Faimtleroy, 144 ; 
(ireen, 117; Hoge, 84 ; Hollingsworth, 100; Lee, 111 ; Lewis, 
79; Mercer, 143; McCarty,80; Neill,99; Nelson. 115; Nicho- 
las, 138; Norton, 147; Randolph, 164; Shaw, 157; Tayloe, 
143 ; Tucker, 160 ; Washinjrton, 60. 

Fauntleroys, 144. 

Fillmore, Sir Edward, 77. 

Flood, Dr William, 144. 

Ford, Rev Dr., 203. 

Fordyce, Captain, 174. 

Fothergill, Dr., 152 ; quaker preacher, 87. 

Gale, Colonel, 75. 

Gazette, London, 114. 

Germantown, Pa., 188. 

George 3d, proposed marriage, 122. 

Gift, Washington's horse, 126. 

Grant, Major, 104. 

Great Bridge, fight at, 174. 

Green, Rev. Charles, 117, 123, 125. 

Green way Court, residence of 6th Lord Fairfax, 51, 126, 165, 214. 

Griffith, Rev. David, bishop elect of Virginia, 177, 180. 

Hanbury, Mr. of London, 140, 167. 

Harrison, Anna, wife of Sherifl" Fairfax, 37, 47, 55 ; Eleanora wife 

of H'y Washing-ton, 37. 
Hawke, Edward Lord, 123, 165. 
Hoge family, 84 : John, i^risoner in France, 87. 
Hollingsworth, Abraham, (juaker, 100 ; family, 100. 
Hopkins, Governor of Connecticut., 11. 
Horse racing, 144. 
Hounds, sent to Virginia, 77. 
Huntingdon, Countess, 195. 

Indian disturbances in Virginia, 83. 

Jockey Clubs, 145. 

Johnson, Governor of Maryland, 183; G. W. Barrister, 7. 



INDEX. 231 

Jones, Captain., killed on Mohawk, 215. 
Juba, a character in Addison's Cato, 106. 

Land Office of Lord Fairfax, 117, 126. 
Latimer, Lord, 30. 

Lee family. 111 : Arthur, member of Continental congress, 112 ; 
Francis, 112 : F. Liglitibot M. C. 112 : George, married Avidow 
of L. Washington, 97: Harry, General, 112, 183: Henry, son 
of Richard, 112 : Philip, son of Richard, 112 : Philip, Colonel, 
112, 153 ; son of Thomas, 112 : Richard, the emigrant. 111 ; 
Richard, son of emigrant. 111 : Richard, grandson of emigrant, 
111 : Richard Henry, 112 : Thomas, son of Richard, 112 : 
Thomas, grandson of Richard, 112 : William, sheriif of London, 
112. 

Letters of Athawes, Ed., 113 ; Samuel, 150, 151, 157, 174 : Barwick 
Ursula, 25 : Bladen, Mary, 71 ; Nathaniel, 29 : Boucher, Rev. 
Jonathan, 167: Buchan, Earl of, 191,197,201: Campbell, 
Matliew, 139 : Chalmer, James, 199 : Clapham, Dorothy, 86 ; 
H., 85 ; Jo., 121 ; Josias, 183 : Corbin, Richard, 147 ; Croft, 
Stephen, 160 ; Erskine, Ann, Lady, 195, 197, 203 ; Isabella, 
Lady, 204 ; Thomas, Lord, 203 : Eyre, Littleton, 91 : Fairfax, 
Bryan, brother of 4th Lord, 33 : Ferdiuando, 2d Lord, 14 : 
George W., 80, 93, 95, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 125, 126, 132, 
135,172: Henry, 4th Lord, 34; SheriflF, 35, 53 : Robert, 7ht Lord, 
134, 164 ; Admiral 61 : Thomas, 5th Lord, 41 ; 6t, 77, 78, 79, 
83, 84, 91, 98, 99, 111 : William, Hon., 56, 62, 64, 66, 67, 69, 74, 76 ; 
of Steeton, 23 : Hawke, Lord, 165 : Hoge, John, 87, 88 : Lee 
George, 97 : Madison, Bishop of Virginia, 185 : Mercer, Geo. F., 
146 : Middleton. E., 196 : Newton, Rev. John, 205 : Nicholas. 
Robt. Carter, 138 : Norton, John, 170; J. H., 145, 149 : Seabury, 
Bishop of Connecticut, 186 : Shaw, Rev. George, 156 : Sherard, 
Dorothy, 72 : Tayloe. John, 143 : Thoresby, Ralph, 42 : Tucker, 
Nathaniel, 159, 163 : Vere, Lady, 10, 12 : Washington, George, 
103,155,180,188,190; Henry, 38 ; Richard, 57, 59 : Widdring- 
ton, Lord, 13 : Willis, Francis, 137. 

Leeds Castle, old oaken chest at, 7. 

Le\vis, Major, killed at Fort Duquesne, 104. 

Lowther, Sir John, 53 ; School 53. 

Lyne, Captain, 171. 

Madison, Bishop of Virginia, 185. 
Mantua- maker's bill, 124. 
Marcia, xVddison's, 106. 



232 • INDEX. 

Martin, Col. T. B., 79, 92, 98, 108, 119, 126, 127, 210. 

Mason, Mr., Ill, 154. 

Mc Carty, family, 80. 

Meade, Bishop, on early love of Wasliington, 101. 

Mercer, George, F., proposed Governor of Vandalia, 139. 

Mohawk River, fort on, 215. 

Monk, General, 18. 

Montague, Ralph, 32. 

Mosley, Rev. Mr., 130. 

Neill, Irish qualior, 99. 

Nelson family, 115, 151. 

Newton, Rev. John, letter of, 205 ; sketch of, 208. 

Nicholas, Captain, 171 ; Robert, Carter, 115, 138, 

Northern Neck of Virginia, 128. 

Norton, J. H., 146. 

Nun Appleton, seat of 3d Lord Fairfax, 21. 

Ohio Company, 140. 

Page, Rev. Bernard, 180. 

Parishes of Virginia elect their pastors, 128. 

Pew of Geo. W. Fairfax, 154. 

Pohick church, 154. 

Potter, Mr., 79. 

Randolph, Edmond, 164 ; John, Attorney General of Vir^nia, 164 : 

Peyton, 164 ; W^illiam, 164. 
Rogers, Governor, Woodes, 68, 69, 74. 
Rymer, Rev. Mr., 34. 

School, boarding proposed, 152. 

Sacheverell, Rev. Dr., 58. 

Savage, Doctor, 188. 

Seabur}', Bishop of Connecticut, 186. 

Selim, race horse, 145. 

Sharpe, Governor, of Maryland, 83. 

Shaw, Rev. George on American troubles, 156. 

Skirmish at Hampton, 171. 

Sparks, Jared, mistake in Washington genealogy, 61. 

Squires, Captain, 171. 

Start, Rev. Mr., 204. 



INDEX. 233 

Stephens, Mr., 99. 

Strickland, Sir Walter, 27 : William, 27. 

Taite. Robert, servant of the Lord Fairfax. 40. 

Tayloe family, 143. 

Thoresby, Ralph, antiquarian, 44 ; describes old Fairfax Hall, 44 ; 

describes fimeral of 4th Lord Fairfax, 37. 
Thornton family, 127. 
Tithables in Virginia, 222, 223. 
Tobacco exported from Virginia, 225. 
Tom, Rev. Mr., of Alexandria, 139. 
Tucker, Nathaniel, 159. 163 : St. George. 163 : Henry St. George, 

160. 

Vandalia, province of proposed, 141. 

Vere, Ann, -svife of 3d Lord Fairfax, 9 ; Lady, letters of, 10, 16. 
Virginia, assembly dissolved, 148 ; associators, 149 ; convention, 
149 ; delegates to Congress, 149. 

Walker, Sarah, wife of Hon. W. Fairfax, 48, 71. 

Walpole grant, 140. 

Washington, genealogy, 60. 

George, on a siu'veying tour, 51 ; names an Indian chief, 51 ; 
Commissioned as a Colonel, 80 : election to the legislature, 
98 ; attachment to Mary Cary, 101 ; at Fort Duquesne, 110 ; 
marries Martha Custis, 110 ; agent for G. AV. Fairfax,- 
118 ; contemplated visit to England, 123 ; letters to, 122, 
124 ; ill health of, 125 ; his stallion. Gift, 126 ; confers 
with Gov. Eden, 135 ; his first military commission, 137 ; 
final money statement to G. W. Fairfax, 155 ; on Bmiker 
Hill battle, 160 ; funeral of, 182 ; letters of, 103, 160, 188, 
190. 

Henry, letters of, 37, 38. 

Lawrence, marries Ann Fairfax, 49. 

Martha, 122, 126. 

Richard of London. 55, 57, 60, 123, 125, 131. 132, 133. 

Warner, 52. 
Watson, Leonard. 128 ; Joseph, 139. 
West, John, 78, 83. 
Widdrington, Lord, 13 ; Lady, 9. 
Williamsburg magazine, 158. 
Willis. Francis Jr., 137. 
Winthrop, Gov. of Mass., 11. 
24 



234 



INDEX. 



Wolfe, General, speech to young Fairfax, lOG. 

Wood, early settler at Winchester, 100. 

Wrij^ht, Lawrence, of Charter House, London, 11 ; letter of 12. 

Wyvill, Rev. Mr., 203. 

Yorick, race horse, 144. 



ERRATA. 



On Page 16, Lord Widdvinrjton should read Lord Fairfax. 
„" 21, New Appleton „ „ „ Nun Appleton. 
„ 90, Aucjust 30 „ „ ,. Se2)tcmbcr 3d. 



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